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Full text of "Omni Magazine (February-March 1993)"

EXCLUSIVE: DESIGNING DEEP SPACE NINE 






SPECIAL REPORT-NEW CANCER CURES: STORIES FROffl THE 
CELL WARS UFO UPDATE: SECRET ALIEN CONFERENCE AT 



$3. m FEB/MAf 1993 



/ mm Bw j m m m% i i i i 



PUZZLES SCIENCE FICTION: THE BATTLE OF LONG ISLAND 



onnrui 



FEBRUARY/MA.^CH 1 



EDITOR IN CHIEF & DESIGN DIRECTOR: BOB GUCCIONE 

PRESIDENT & COO.: KATHY KEETON 

EDITOR: KEITH FERRELL 

EXECUTIVEVP/GRAPHICSCir,- I II DEVINO 

MANAGING EDITOR: CAROLINE DARK 

SENIOR ART DIRECTOR: DWAYNE FLINCHUM 



DEPARTMENTS 



First Word 

By Bryan Appleyard 

Science doesn't 

have all the answers. 

6 

Communications 

Readers' writes 

8 

Funds 

By Linda Marsa 

10 

Forum 

By Keith Ferrell 

12 

The Great Treasure Hunt 

16 

Political Science 

By Tom Dworetzky 

A genetic Pandora's box 

17 

Space 

By Randall Black 

18 

Electronic Universe 

By Gregg Keizer 

20 

Museums 

By Peggy Noonan 

Enter the 

world of the Aztecs. 

22 

Medicine 

By Steve Nadis 

Worldwide medical data 

25 

Continuum 

96 

Games 

By Scot Morris 




□avid Bischoff talks to the cast (cover photo by Tom 

Zimberoff) and creators of Deep Space Nine 

in our cover story, and set designer Herman Zimmerman 

lets readers in on the show's distinctive 

look. (Additional art and photo credits, page 86) 



34 

Behind the Scenes of 

Star Trek: 

Deep Space Nine 

By David Bischoff 

It's about a single dad and 

his teenage 

son — living in space. 

Welcome 

to Star Trek for the 

Nineties. 

42 

Architect of Illusion: 

Designing 

Deep Space Nine 

By Herman Zimmerman 

■ The man 

behind the look 

50 

The Cancer War: 

Stories from the Front 

By Linda Murray 

Are' scientists closer 

to curing 

cancer? Some have found 

success with 

innovative treatments. 

59 

Unconventional Cancer 

Treatments 

By Judith Hooper 

62 

Fiction: The Battle of 

Long Island 

By Nancy Kress 

75 

Interview 

By Hampton Howard 



im 



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FIRST WORD 



SEDUCTIVE PROPAGANDA: 

The rhetoric of triumphant scientism 

By Bryan Appleyarc! 



AppleyartI: 
"Science trans- 
ports the 
entire issue of 
life on 
earth tram the 
realm at 
the mnral or the 
transcendent 
to the realm at the 




feasible. Tiiis 
child can lie cured, 
this bomb 
can be dropped. 
'Can' super- 
sedes 'should'; 
"ability' su- 
persedes obliga- 
tion'; 'No 
problem!' suoer- 



^F^k Imost all popularizers of 
#mA science — notably, in re- 
m m cent years, Jacob Bro- 
nowski and Carl Sagan — say the 
same kind of things. They say 
that science is a spectacle ot ma- 
jestic progression, that, in spite of 
its apparent obscurity, it is a nat- 
ural and inevitable product of the 
human imagination, it has funda- 
mental human significance and it 
is ultimately capable of answer- 
ing every question. 

God is often evoked. Sagan in 
his introduction to Stephen Hawk- 
ing's book [A Brief History of 
Time] says: "This is also a 
book about God or perhaps 
about the absence of God. The 
word God fills these pages." Bring- 
ing God into the equations sug- 
gests both the importance and vir- 
tue of the scientific enterprise— 
this, we are told, is a continuation 
of the ancient religious .quest to 
find Him and to do His will. 

The message is that science is 
the human project. It is what we 
are intended to do. It is the only 
adventure. Bronowski, in particu- 
lar, presents science as that 
which has always made us dis- 
tinctively human, Science and 
technology accompany all hu- 
man societies and distinguish us 
from the beasts. They are contin- 
uous throughout human history: 
relativity and microwave ovens 
are clearly the descendants of 
the first plough or the first wheel; 
they spring from the same im- 
pulse, the same inspiration. 
Most persuasive of all, ploughs 
and microwaves are unique in the 
known universe in that they are 
fashioned by reason. 

This is propaganda, dangerous- 
ly seductive propaganda. It is all 
misleading, even offensive, to the 
lives we actually lead. We are di- 
minished by this rhetoric. It is the 
rhetoric of what is called "scien- 
tism" — the belief that science is 
or can be the complete and only 



explanation. Whether we like it or 
not, science possesses an intrin- 
sically domineering quality. This 
kind of triumphant scientism is 
built into all science. 

The appearance of a Hawking, 
a Sagan or a Bronowski in the best- 
seller lists or on television may be 
a huge media event, but it is 
quite rare. Every decade or so we 
seem to be ready for a new pop- 
ularizing figure to bring us news 
from the further reaches of spec- 
ulative and theoretical science or 
to encourage our faith in its vir- 
tue. In the intervening periods sci- 
ence blends innocuously into the 
background noise of our culture. 

When [the word "science"] is 
used, it may dimly evoke images 
of schoolrooms, laboratories or 
men in white coats, a rocket 
launch,, a nuclear explosion or a 
chemical plant. We may see equa- 
tions, computers, test-tubes, par- 
ticle accelerators or colourful, toy- 
like models of molecules. Or the 
word may evoke technology: tel- 
evisions, cars, manufacturing tech- 
niques, building methods, commu- 
nications systems. 

If pressed, we may bring our- 
selves to acknowledge that, in 
the developed world., we cannot 
dress, feed, travel, procreate or 
be entertained without the inter- 
vention of science. But we tend 
to think these are all different 
things. The electric kettle is not 
the same as an aircraft. They are 
both machines, certainly, but 
that Is all. So our conception of 
science is diluted and its true iden- 
tity concealed. For science is one 
thing and it is. in both the kettle 
and the plane. 

But, subliminally, our vague 
awareness of and gratitude for 
the ease and ubiquity of technol- 
ogy prepares us to accept the 
larger claim of science that it 
alone can lead us to God. It has 
solved so many of our little prob- 
lems, maybe it can solve the big 



one. After all, both flying and elec- 
trically boiling water are miracu- 
lous in their different ways and 
our ideas of God is usually accom- 
panied by miracles. 

This unarguable and spectac- 
ular effectiveness is the ace up 
science's sleeve. Whatever else 
we may think of it, we have to ac- 
cept that science works. Penicil- 
lin cures disease, aircraft fly, 
crops grow more intensively be- 
cause -of fertilizers. 

Science tells us that there are 
things called problems that have 
things called solutions and it 
tells us by showing us. So the ef- 
fectiveness of science gives us 
more than hot water or the facili- 
ty to hear good music, it gives us 
a sense, that we can grasp every- 
thing, even things we cannot see. 
This effectiveness is absolute. 

Science is not a neutral or 
innocent commodity which can 
be employed as a convenience 
by people wishing to partake 
only of the West's material pow- 
er. Rather it is spiritually corro- 
sive, burning away ancient author- 
ities and traditions. It cannot re- 
ally co-exist with anything. Scien- 
tists inevitably take on the mantle 
of the wizards, sorcerers and 
witch-doctors. Their miracle 
cures become" our spells, their ex- 
periments our rituals. 

So, as it burns away all com- 
petition, the question becomes: 
what kind of life is it that science 
offers to its people? How does it 
replace other wisdom, other mean- 
ings? These are the questions of 
the nature of the scientific life in 
the scientific society and they are 
the questions thai will lead us in- 
exorably back to Hawking's 
God.Dd 



Modern Man. Copyright ©. by Bry- 
an Appleyard. To be published 
by Doubleday in March 1993. 



connnnuruiCATOfus 



READERS' WRITES: 

The power of suggestion, side-splitting surgery, 

and was Annie in her gun? 



: 



At the Count ot Three . . . 
I applaud your article on past lives [Re- 
membrance of Traumas Past, Novem- 
ber 1992] for giving space to such an 
important and overlooked element in 
the field of mental and spiritual healing. 
However, I must point out that hypno- 
tism is an ineffective and potentially dan- 
gerous tool for this type of therapy. The 
danger stems from the basic principles 
of induced suggestibility that are the 
foundation of the practice. Suggestions 
and even casual comments made by 
the hypnotist directly to or simply with- 
in the hearing of a hypnotized subject 
carry the force of implanted commands. 
Hypnotism is old, dead .history. It's 
time we move forward from medieval 
practices and approach the problems 
of the human mind with safe, workable 
technology. 

Craig Houchin 
Los Angeles, CA 

Hearts and Minds 

Rarely have I laughed quite so hard as 
when reading the article on bypass sur- 
gery [Mind, November 1992], How hi- 
larious that Dr. John Murkin, anesthe- 
siologist, found that seven days after 
the operation, IQ scores were slightly 
diminished as were concentration, re- 
flexes, and short-term memory, and the 
patients were experiencing severe de- 
pression. I believe it! I had a quadru- 
ple bypass. At the end of seven days, 
I still had numerous tubes, wires, bells, 
and whistles inserted in various parts of 
my body, not to mention frequent injec- 
tions of a painkilling narcotic. The op- 
eratiqn also increased the risk of con- 
stipation and perambulation difficulties. 
Two months later, when Murkin con- 
ducted his next series of tests, I still 
would have flunked jogging, speed -,valk- 
ing, martial arts, bike riding, and roller 
skating. Hobbling around with a cane, 
fearful of being bumped by people at 
the mall, I might have been diagnosed 
as agoraphobic as well. Yes, severe de- 
pression, high anxiety, and mortal fear 
were definitely occupying a great por- 
tion of my thought process. Time 
passed and my wounds are healed. In 



all seriousness, I don't know if Murkin's 
theory merits consideration; I leave 
that for the medical community to de- 
cide. I think there are other reasons for 
lowered mental acuity and physical prow- 
ess so soon after bypass surgery. We 
bypass survivors are split down our 
chests; our bodies are do: ibled back un- 
til our shoulder blades touch; our 
hearts are stopped; arteries are ex- 
tracted from our legs and then grafted 
to our hearts. We are tied, tubed, and 
doped. Let's get real! 

Laura Lansberry 
Tucson, AZ 

Holy Sight 

After reading your report of the UFO 
sightings in Israel [UFO Update] in 
your November issue, I was pleased to 
see other countries included in the UFO 
craze. I think that many times UFO 
seers are misiakon tor hicks. As a high- 
school junior from the Midwest, my "cul- 
ture" gets poked at a lot. Omni just 
tells it like it is. Many scientists are stub- 
born on disproving the sightings in- 
stead of proving them. I admit that 
snow is not the best reason to exclaim 
that the extraterrestrials have come, but 
it might be just what the Holy Land 
needs. I'm glad to see that the Ameri- 
cans' insatiable hunger for curiosity is 
worldly and not just another hick-town 
phenomenon. 

Matt Caldwell 
Shelbina, MO 

Dear Hunter 

1 found "Happy Hunting Ground" [An- 
timatter, November 1992] anything but 
happy. It is sad and disturbing to read 
that the desire and intent to kill is so 
strong and powerful that a hunter 
would choose to have his (or her) re- 
mains blasted over a favorite deer 
field instead of requesting that they be 
placed gently on a mantel or buried 
with loved ones. Maybe that's the key: 
Who, or what, does the hunter love? His 
wife, his children, his family, or "the 
kill"? 

Katherine J. Trimna! 
Columbia, SO DO 



FUflJDS 

FINANCE SOFTWARE: 
High-tech money managers 

By Linda Marsa 




These popular pro- 
grams now 
offer an array of 
bells and 
whistles that do 
lust about 
everything except 
actually 
earn the money. 



Few of us have the savvy 
to handle our money or 
the extra cash to hire a 
pricey pro. Relax. Affordable mon- 
ey-management help is just a key- 
stroke away: Now there's person- 
al-finance software. 

These computerized number 
crunchers can pay monthly bills; 
devise schemes for streamlining 
expenses and stockpiling a nest 
egg; track savings, credit-card, 
and investment accounts; dis- 
pense investment advice; exe- 
cute stock trades; and deliver lec- 
tures on the virtues of thrift. 

Even computerphobes can or- 
ganize their finances with Intuit's 




easy-to-use Quicken (DOS, Win- 
dows, Macintosh; $69.95), the in- 
dustry's top seller, which does 
day-to-day budgeting and 
tracks cash flow and investments. 
Color graphics with pie charts 
and grids give you a clear snap- 
shot of your financial picture at 
any given moment. Quicken's re- 
cently added IntelliCharge fea- 
ture enables users to monitor cred- 
it-card purchases made with a 
Quicken Visa card; the monthly 
statement is fed via modem or 
disk directly into your computer — 
eliminating the need for tedious 
and time-consuming data entry. 

Microsoft Money Version 2.0' 
(Windows; £69.95) offers a simi- 



lar package of easy-to-use pro- 
grams to print checks, balance 
your checkbook, set budgets, am- 
ortize loans, calculate net worth, 
and prepare tax information. 

Quicken and MECA's Andrew 
Tobias Managing Your Money 
(DOS, Macintosh; $79,95) will 
pay your bills via modem 
through CheckFree, an electron- 
ic bill-paying service, for S9.95 a 
month for the first 20 checks and 
$3.50 for each additional block of 
ten checks. Managing Your Mon- 
ey, which has been described as 
"a kind of Swiss Army Knife of per- 
sonal-finance, software," is more 
comprehensive than Quicken, 
with a tax-planning module, a com- 
plete bookkeeping system for 
small businesses, and a direct da- 
ta link to Fidelity On-Line Xpress 
(Fox), which allows you to trade 
stocks. It will flash onscreen mes- 
sages, fax you, or even beep 
your Sky Tel pager if you're away 
from your computer to warn if 
your stocks tumble below or rise 
above a preset benchmark. 

Reality's WealthStarter with 
Charles J. Givens (DOS; $44.95) 
on the other hand, does bare- 
bones financial planning. It 
helps you develop a livable budg- 
et, offers hundreds of tips for cut- 
ting the fat out of overhead to gen- 
erate an operating surplus, forc- 
es you to set goals, and maps out 
strategies for achieving them. Tu- 
torials explain 16 different types 
of investment subjects (mutual 
funds, stocks, precious metals, fu- 
tures) and break down into easy 
steps financial objectives like se- 
curing a mortgage. The program 
even dispenses monthly financial 
report cards charting your prog- 
ress. Just what you always want- 
ed — an electronic nag. 

Reality's WealthBuilder by Mon- 
ey Magazine (DOS, Macintosh; 
$79.99) arms users with more so- 
phisticated financial-planning 
tools. What-if scenarios invento- 



ry users' investment philosophies 
and then factor in goals like ear- 
ly retirement or buying a vacation 
home. This information is used to 
compute what you'll need to 
save and to formulate general 
guidelines as to which assets 
should be allocated to meet 
those objectives. 

Nitty-gritty investment advice 
with specific suggestions that 
name real names — like GT Pacif- 
ic and Shearson Lehman — is of- 
fered by the newest entrant in fi- 
nancial software, Reality's Smart 
Investor by Money Magazine 
(DOS; $59.99). This program, 
says Reality's president and CEO 
Mark Goldstein, "automates the 
investment process like ATMs au- 
tomated banking" — and no other 
software program has its capabil- 
ities. This high-tech financial ad- 
viser customizes an investment 
strategy — and suggests the pur- 
chase of specific CDs, mutual 
funds, and money-market funds — 
based on quizzes to determine 
your objectives, financial situa- 
tion, and tolerance for risk. 

For a monthly fee — ranging 
from $9.95 for the basic package 
to $17.95 for the platinum plan — 
you can access a wealth of infor- 
mation on more than 17,000 
stocks, bonds, mutual funds, 
CDs, and money markets; plug in 
to discount brokers like Quick & 
Reilly and the Personal Control 
Financial Network to execute 
trades; get daily updates on 
your portfolio or on stock options; 
and receive market alerts to buy 
or sell your holdings. You can even 
program in social-screening cri- 
teria so your mechanical maven 
only suggests squeaky-clean, 
socially responsible investments. 

Of course, it's doubtful any of 
these programs will supplant 
flesh-and-blood financial analysts 
anytime soon. But they are a sen- 
sible way to jump-start organizing 
your finances. DO 



FDRUfin 



STAR TREK: DEEP SPACE NINE 
Real science, real science fiction? 

By Keith Ferrell 




# 1 ti 



^ bii of explanation for those 
^of you curious about 
l the somewhat unusual 
date on the cover of this issue. 
The dateline identifies this as the 
February/March 1993 issue. 

No, Omni is nol going into the 
time-travel business (although 
we'd love to). Nor are we skip- 




the Star Tfek 

universe 

for the 1990s 

while 

paying close 

attention 

to real science. 



onthly 




ping an issue ©r 
issues or changin 
publication. 

What we are doing — the rea- 
son this issue bears a two-month 
designation — is a bit of calendri- 
cal adjustment, primarily for the 
benefit of the thousands of news- 
stands that carry Omni. The date 
on the cover of 
a magazine, you 
see, has tradition- 
ally served as the 
off-sale date for 
that issue. That's 
why so many mag- 
azines bear dates 
so far in advance 
of the calendar. 

Well, there's en- 
tropy in the mag- 
azine business as 
well as the uni- 
verse at large, 
and what with ■ 
one thing and an- 



other over 14 years, Omni's cov- 
er date has drifted closer and clos- 
er to the actual calendar date. As 
a result, we've found ourselves en- 
joying — if that's the word — some 
very brief display periods here 
and there. Obviously, we can't let 
that happen; much as we'd love 
to believe that our newsstand 
customers flock to the magazine 
racks the instanta new Omni ap- 
pears, we also want to offer the 
longest possible display periods. 

So we decided to do a little tem- 
poral adjustment, letting this 
month's cover share the names of 
two months. As a result, our next 
issue, April 1993, will be on sale 
in March, as it should be, and all 
will be right with the world. 

Subscribers will find that their 
subscriptions now will end with a 
cover date one month later than 
previously. Newsstand readers 
will find a brand-new issue of Om- 
ni one month from now. We will, 
in other words, provide a full com- 
plement of 12 issues this year, 
one every four weeks or so. It's 
just this issue that bears a bit of 
the unusual, 

On to other matters . . . 

We're pleased this month to 
take another look at the Star 
Trek phenomenon, in the form of 
a behind-the-scenes glimpse of 
the latest offspring of the Star 
Trek universe: Deep Space 
Nine. This series, we are told, 
will treat science more seriously 
than any series in history, includ- 
ing iis Trek-\sn predecessors. 

Time will tell if that commitment 
proves out, but it is indeed past 
time for more science-bound dra- 
ma on television and in the cine- 
ma. Deep Space Nine brings to 
three, by my count, the number 
of science-fiction programs on 
broadcast television. The others 
are Star Trek: The Next Genera- 
tion and Quantum Leap. 

Cable television offers a few 
more alternatives, notably the Sci- 



ence Fiction Channel and Com- 
edy Central's Mystery Science 
3000, both profiled in Omni over 
the past few months. The declin- 
ing cost of special effects cou- 
pled with the growing need for 
original programming should 
prompt an increase in science- 
fiction series and movies for tel- 
evision in the months to come. 

Omni readers know as well or 
perhaps better than anyone the 
special delights of real science fic- 
tion. That those real delights can 
work in the visual media, and at- 
tract huge audiences at the 
same time, is obvious, and has 
been for more than a quarter of 
a century, since the release of 
2001: A Space Odyssey. 

Perhaps now, as we count 
down the years to the real 2001, 
we will see the birth of a true sci- 
ence-fiction cinema, one based 
on the classics of the field as 
well as on the concepts that sci- 
ence fiction has made popular. 
Imagine switching on the televi- 
sion, plugging in a videotape, or 
standing in line at the movie the- 
ater to see dramas based on the 
works of Aldiss or Asimov, Ellison 
or Silverberg, Anderson or Simak, 
Heinlein or Zebrowski, Pohl or 
Malzberg. There -is a lode of emi- 
nently filmable material awaiting 
c nematic development. 

The key, I think, for all would- 
be video science-fiction produc- 
ers is to take their material as se- 
riously as do the best science- 
fiction writers. To gaze at the 
future unflinching, to create uni- 
verses that have never existed, 
and to populate those universes 
with memorable, believable, even 
recognizable characters. 

It's no small task, but the re- 
wards—both artistic and commer- 
cial — are worth it. We'll keep you 
posted in the months ahead 
about other attempts to bring 
real science fiction to the 
screen. DQ 



POLITICAL SCIEflJCE 

NO DELTAS NEED APPLY: 

Will DNA mutation AF508 make you an outcast? 

By Tom Dworetzky 



SJciilfl-celf- 

anemia cells: A 

large-scale 

screening-test 

program 



In most people, cystic fibrosis 
comes from the deletion of one 
amino acid at location 508 in 
a CF gene product, a mutation 
known for short as AF508. 
There's a simple screening test 
for it so that you can find out if 
you're carrying this mutation — 
that is, find out if you're a Delta. 
The ability to screen for AF508 
is an early example of the type of 
genetic testing that will be increas- 
ingly available as the Human 
Genome Project unravels the mys- 
teries of DNA. This knowledge, 
however, has impact beyond 
the medical or sciertll'ic 




ethnlc-specif- 
ic genetic 



It cuts to the core of our humani- 
ty, lets us peer into each other's 
books of life, and, like a science- 
fiction story in which the hero 
knows the future, the knowledge 
poses tough moral questions. 

I once had a teacher who 
talked about what it is to be a hu- 
man being — something we only 
had the potential for. Not every hu- 
man animal turned into one. It 
was up to each of us to develop 
the capacity to become truly hu- 
man within ourselves, to learn 
though knowledge and wisdom. 

The most important issues the 
new genetics raises: Should test- 
ing be mandatory? If so, how can 



the information be kepi private? 
What educational efforts can en- 
sure that genetic data do not be- 
come instruments of discrimina- 
tion? How should the costs of 
screenings and care of those af- 
flicted be borne? Large-scale 
screening isn't new to the United 
States, and previous efforts 
shed some light on these ethical 
quandaries. Two major genetic- 
disease-screening programs— 
for Tay Sachs disease and sickle- 
cell anemia — serve as examples 
of what can go right, and wrong. 

Tay Sachs-carrier screening be- 
gan in 1971 and is generally con- 
sidered a success story. The ail- 
ment is mostly found among 
East European Ashkenazi Jews 
and their descendants. After a 
year of technical preparation, 
education, and a public-relations 
campaign, voluntary screening be- 
gan. Ultimately, it reached over 1 
million adults. In contrast, the sick- 
le-cell-anemia program, also be- 
gun in the Seventies, is generally 
considered a failure. 

The most profound difference 
between the two campaigns was 
that the sickle-cell screening pro- 
gram was mandatory in a number 
of states. It was Caucasian-de- 
signed and implemented — and 
targeted toward African Ameri- 
cans. According to an Office of 
Technology Assessment report, 
this led to accusations that the pro- 
gram was basically racial geno- 
cide. Even though by the late 
Seventies the mandatory aspect 
was dropped, the ethnic-specif- 
ic program continued to fail, due 
to lack of education, counseling, 
and confidentiality of results. 

These examples have clear im- 
plications. We'll have to find non- 
threaiening ways to use our ge- 
netic knowledge and demystify it 
so that people won't fear the 
technology and will voluntarily go 
for screening. We must guaran- 
tee the privacy of results so that 



we don't create yet another ex- 
cuse for discrimination. We'll 
have to develop a health-care pol- 
icy for those who will become 
sick, and regulations that prevent 
institutions — including govern- 
ment, private health-care provid- 
ers, and insurance companies — 
from creating subcasfes of the ge- 
netically dispossessed. (Say, for 
example, screening reveals that 
you carry the gene defect caus- 
ing Huntington's disease. Does 
that render your eventual illness 
a so-called "preexisting condi- 
tion," — a situation today's health 
policies often will not cover?) 

Additionally, most insurance 
plans do not pay for tests which 
they consider to be screening as- 
says (unless something in the pa- 
tient's history indicates a need for 
the exam). Should genetic test- 
ing — arguably the ultimate preven- 
tive medical procedure — be cov- 
ered along with the genetic coun- 
seling? We will have to apply 
wisdom to figure out how to ac- 
knowledge those people at a 
greater risk and how to spread 
their burden so that it doesn't fall 
on them alone. Oddly, with all of 
the talk of heaith-care reform go- 
ing on now, the exploding field of 
genetics research (with the genet- 
ic implications, too, in the abor- 
tion debate) has not been part of 
the dialogue — even though genet- 
ic therapy may ultimately find it- 
self on center stage. 

I'm not saying we shouldn't pro- 
ceed with the Human Genome Fro- 
ject. The gifts it will bear in treat- 
ment for devastating inherited dis- 
eases outweigh its societal risks. 
However, we must begin, individ- 
ually and collectively, to prepare 
for this knowledge by addressing 
our prejudices. Those are the 
most deadly of all inherited dis- 
eases, ones we must cure before 
our genetic knowledge will ever 
flower into wisdom and we truly 
become human beings. DO 



MELTDOWN: 

Going to Mars in a nuclear rocket — if it can get off the ground 

By Randall Black 



It doesn't take a rocket scien- 
tist to realize that nuclear pow- 
er stirs up controversy. Still, us- 
ing nuclear technology for space- 
craft looks almost inevitable: The 
Synthesis Group asked by the 
White House to examine the 
space program recently called nu- 
clear power "the only prudent pro- 
pulsion system for Mars transit." 

Although "nuclear" has in 
some circles become synony- 
mous with "dangerous," astro- 
naut Franklin Chang-Diaz ex- 
plains that an atomic rocket 
would actually be safer for a hu- 
man crew than a conventional 
rocket. Nuclear power is more ef- 
ficient than chemical fuels, propel- 
ling a rocket to Mars more quick- 
ly for the same amount of fuel 
and thus reducing the crew's ex- 
posure to radiation from solar 
flares and cosmic rays. "It is iron- 
ic that we have to use nuclear 
power to minimize the threat of ra- 
diation," Chang-Diaz says. 

The basic design of a nuclear 
thermal rocket is well understood. 
A gas such as hydrogen passes 
through the core of a nuclear re- 
actor, which heats it to create 
thrust. In the 1960s, NASA devel- 
oped a rudimentary nuclear ther- 
mal rocket called Nerva that the 
government canceled in 1972. 
The Nerva research still has 
application today, according to 
Thomas J. Miller, NASA's chief of 
nuclear propulsion, 

According to Miller, the advan- 
tage of nuclear rockets rests in 
their high "specific impulse" com- 
pared to that of chemical rockets. 
Specific impulse is calculated by 
dividing pounds of thrust by the 
flow of fuel in pounds per sec- 
ond, and it gives a measure of ef- 
ficiency expressed in seconds. 
"Chemical systems are currently 
running around 450 seconds of 
specific impulse," Miller says. 
"The Nerva system demonstrated 
about 800 seconds, and that was 



back in 1972. We predict we can 
probably reach 850 easily and 
eventually reach about a thou- 
sand seconds.". 

That kind of efficiency means 
that trip times of 450 to 500 days 
for chemical rockets can be short- 
ened to 150 to 300 days for nu- 
clear thermal rockets, according 
to Gordon Woodcock, director of 
a Boeing study ordered by NA- 
SA that examined propulsion op- 
tions and declared nuclear ther- 
mal as the rocket of choice. 

Engineers may be convinced, 
but what about the public? 

"We are absolutely.opposed to 
any use of nuclear- power in 
space," says Bruce Gagnon, 
spokesman for the Florida Coali- 
tion for Peace and Justice. The an- 
tinuclear group filed unsuccess- 
ful lawsuits to prevent the launch- 
es of the Galileo and Ulysses 
unmanned spacecraft. Both space- 
craft carried radioisotope thermo- 
electric generators (RTGs) contain- 
ing small quantities of plutonium 
to generate electric power for in- 
struments while in deep space. 
The organization feared that an ac- 
cident could release the radioac- 
tive material. 

However, unlike the plutonium 
in RTGs, the uranium in a nucle- 
ar thermal rocket would not turn 
radioactive until its reactor went 
into operation as it left Earth or- 
bit for Mars. 

"We have to make a distinction 
between materials that are dan- 
gerous when we launch them 
and materials that we use to 
build a reactor," Chang-Diaz 
explains. 

Others hold more moderate 
views than Gagnon's group. "We 
are willing to be convinced that 
this is an appropriate technology 
and that it can be done safely," 
says Steve Aftergood, senior re- 
search analyst for the Federation 
of American Scientists, which has 
investigated space nuclear pow- 



er and nuclear propulsion. 

Potential problems for nuclear- 
powered spacecraft include the 
possibility of a meltdown in 
space and disposing of a spent 
nuclear engine once it accom- 
plishes its mission. One disposal 
technique — used for the United 
States' one and only orbiting nu- 
clear reactor, launched in 1965 — 
is simply leaving radioactive ma- 
terial in a very high, long-lived or- 
bit, Aftergood- says. 

A meltdown in a spacecraft 
on an interplanetary trajectory 
would simply strand the crew 
like any other type of engine fail- 
ure. In Earth orbit, a meltdown 
would severely complicate final 
disposal of the system. The worst- 
case scenario. would be reentry 
of a nuclear engine after it had 
been activated. 

However, Aftergood believes 
that the most serious obstacle to 
nuclear propulsion will come be- 
fore a fission-powered spacecraft 
leaves the ground. "Ground test- 
ing of the nuclear rocket proto- 
type is going to be environmen- 
tally and politically the biggest hur- 
dle the program will face." 

Controversy may be inevitable, 
but NASA can look to another 
branch of government that oper- 
ates a small fleet of huclear-pro- 
pelled vehicles. "We are trying to 
learn everything we can from the 
nuclear Navy," Miller says. DO 



A nuclear vessel 
of another 
type: The U.S. and 
former Soviet 
navies have suc- 
cessfully used 
nuclear propulsion 
for years 
in some ot their 
submarines, 
providing a model 
that NASA is 
eager to emulate. 




ELECTRONIC 
UNIVERSE 



DUELING DISC PLAYERS: 

Longing for a single CD-game standard 

By Gregg Keizer 



The Sega CD 
leads the 
game-playing 
pack with a 
play list chock- 
full ol fun. 



Moj'd think they were try- 
ing to get us to quit play- 
ing games. 
No, they doesn't include your 
spouse, boss, or even some cra- 
zy bunch worried about the Satan- 
ic influence of dungeon-crawling 
games filled with absurdly aber- 
rant miscreants. Tneyare trie very 
people who should be patting 
you on the back every time you 
turn off the TV and turn to elec- 
tronic entertainment instead. 
They are the makers of yet anoth- 
er stew of game machines. 

The most recent offenders in- 
clude name-brand companies 
like Sega, Sony, Nintendo, Phil- 
ips, and Tandy. All have 
launched, or will launch, compact- 
disc-playing entertainment sys- 
tems. And with two exceptions, 
these machines play only the 
games written to their individual 
specifications. 

It wouldn't be so bad, this play- 
me-and-only-me attitude, if it were- 




n't a fact that these machines, or 

ones like them, will be the preem- 
inent way to play games at home 
by the middle of the decade. 
That's because of the compact 
disc. Compact-disc games can 
stretch their digital legs, for they 
can hold as much raw data as 
hundreds of PC floppies. They 
can pack digital speech, CD-gual- 
iiy music, limited-motion video, 
hundreds of photolike images, 
and libraries of text onto a single 
disc. They have the potential of 
burying floppy-disk games and 
videogame cartridges like so 
many capitalists in Khrushchev's 
dreams — tfthey can convince us 
that they're going to be the VHS, 
not the Betamax, of the business. 

Of these competing systems, 
Philips' Imagination Machine has 
been out the longest, over a 
year. But although it had a head 
start, it drew little attention until 
the company dropped the price 
to $700 and aggressively 
pushed it with TV advertising. The 
jump hasn't done the Imagination 
Machine much good, primarily be- 
cause many of its better titles are 
more reference or preschool-ori- 
ented than fun and games. 

Sony's recently released Multi- 
media CD-ROM Player (MMCD), 
a small portable CD player, isn't 
really a game machine, but it 
does show that it's possible to 
pack player, screen, and even a 
tiny keyboard into something 
small enough to toss into a brief- 
case. Marketed more as a 
reference gizmo— initial titles run 
along the lines of IBM's A Corpo- 
rate Guide to National Parks— 
the MMCD foreshadows the fu- 
ture of hand-held entertainment. 

Tandy's got a better shot of 
making it if only because its $700 
VIS (Video Information System) us- 
es a modified version of Microsoft 
Windows, the point-and-click in- 
terface popular on PCs that lets 
developers quickly convert their 



compact-disc wares from the 
MPC {Multimedia Personal Com- 
puter) standard to the VIS. 

Right now, though, the hard- 
ware with the best chance of sur- 
vival is SegaCD, a compact-disc 
player that connects to the pop- 
ular Sega Genesis videogame ma- 
chine. Not only does it cost less — 
£300, plus the $100 or so for a 
Genesis if you don't have one al- 
ready — but its CD play list is right- 
fully thick with games. 

Several of the first Sega CD 
games use the massive storage 
space of the compact disc for im- 
pressive music and sound ef- 
fects, and most intriguing, full- 
motion video. Sony's Sewer 
Shark, for instance, plunges you 
through video of simulated tun- 
nels while ICOM's Sherlock 
Holmes: Consulting Detective 
(one of the discs that comes 
with the unit) puts real actors on 
the screen in slightly herky-jerky 
video. The digitized speech and 
CD-quality music packed on 
most discs adds to the theaterlike 
experience. 

But Sega CD won't be the last 
word in CD-game players this 
year. Waiting in the wings is Nin- 
tendo, the videogame industry's 
800-pound gorilla. Although Nin- 
tendo won't release a compact- 
disc-player peripheral for its Su- 
per NES game machine until 
well into 1993, don't count it out. 
Nintendo, for instance, has allied 
itself with Sony; the two will co- 
create a compatible CD-game- 
player standard and both will 
sell CD-playing game machines 
or add-ons. 

Such a single CD standard for 
games — like the one audio mak- 
ers settled on before the first com- 
pact disc was pressed — would 
put an end to this pay-today, play- 
only-for-today madness. Then 
we'd be able to concentrate on 
games, the things that really 
count. DO 



nnusEunns 

MOCTEZUMA'S REVENGE: 

The glory of Tenochtitlan shines again 

By Peggy Noonan 




A reproduction 
of a carved 
stone snowing 
Coyolxauhqui, 
the moon goddess 
tbelow); a 
stone sculpture ol 
Cihualeotl, 
Hie goddess of 
women who 
died in childbirth 
(above); and 
a Cholula poly- 
chrome pot- 
tery plate and cup 
(tar 



Spanish explorers were 
dazzled in the early 
1500s when they first 
gazed across the Valley of Mexi- 
co and saw Tenochtitlan, the 
magnificent Aztec capital at the 
center of the vast, shallow Lake 
Texcoco. In this century, Mexican 
archaeologists experienced a sim- 
ilar thrill of discovery when they 
unearthed Tenochtitlan 's remains 
from beneath the streets of Mex- 
ico City. Today, visitors to Den- 
ver's Museum of Natural History 
can recapture that excitement 
through an exhibit called "Aztec: 
The World of Moctezuma." 

"While exhibitions on Aztec art 
have been presented before in 
the United States," says Jane Ste- 
venson Day, the museum's chief 
curator, this ranks as the. first to 
place the objects "in their cultur- 
al context," 

The museum has dedicated 
more than 40,000 square feet to 
:-only exhibit, which 
udes some 300 artifacts 
I by Mexico City's 
dIo Mayor Mu- 
seum and Na- 
tional Mu- 
seum of 




Anthropology. When the exhibit 
ends on February 21, the treas- 
ures will return to Mexico City, 
with no additional visits to the 
United States scheduled. David 
Carrasco; a Mesoamerican ex- 
pert and professor of religious 
studies at the University of Colo- 
rado at Boulder, and Eduardo Ma- 
tes Moctezuma, Mexico's leading 
archaeologist and director of the 
Templo Mayor Museum, collabo- 
rated with Day to bring the arti- 
facts from Mexico and arrange 
the unique exhibit around them. 

The tour begins with an over- 
view of the Aztecs. Before Her- 
nan Cortes and his Spanish con- 
quistadors arrived in 1519, the 
semidivine King Moctezuma II (al- 
so called Montezuma) ruled one 
of the largest cities in the world, 
whose size and commerce ri- 
valed that of any contemporary Eu- 
ropean city. Two years later, the 
Spaniards razed Tenochtitlan, de- 
stroying the last great pre-Colum- 
bian Mesoamerican civilization. 

The Denver exhibit attempts to 
re-create Tenochtitlan as it exist- 
ed just before the Spaniards 
came. "The layout of the exhibi- 
tion is based on a geographic 
progress where you start at the 
agricultural outskirts of the city," 
journey through the urban district, 
and "finally end up at the Tem- 
plo Mayor [Great Templej, the po- 
litical and spiritual center of the 
entire Aztec Empire," explains ex- 
hibit designer David Pachuta. 
.. A diorama shows how a typi- 
cal Aztec farm family worked a 30- 
squa re-foot chinampa — the Span- 
iards called them "floating gar- 
dens." The farmer drained his 
plot, piled alternating layers of 
mud and plant matter on woven 
frames to raise a small island, 
and then anchored that island to 
the lake bed by planting trees at 
each corner. The gardens yield- 
ed corn, beans, tomatoes, 
squash, chiles, and cacao for 



chocolate, and the Aztec farmers 
rotated their crops so that their chi- 
nampas could yield up to seven 
harvests a year. 

Re-creating the Aztecs' teem- 
ing marketplace in diorama — 
Spanish observers said as many 
as 60,000 people a day flowed in- 
to it — required extensive research 
to maintain accuracy, and mural- 
ist Stephen Lucero painted stead- 
ily for seven and a half months. 
The curved background, measur- 
ing 16 x 55 feet, shows a temple 
rising majestically behind mass- 
es of people and diverse market 
goods. Mannequins in the fore- 
ground model an array of arti- 
facts, including Aztec currency — 
which ranged from cotton man- 
tles to quills filled with gold dust — 
and barter goods. 

A 16-foot-tall reconstruction of 
the Templo Mayor, a stepped dou- 
ble-pyramid, stands in the muse- 
um's three-story atrium. Two iden- 
tical " b lo od "- sta i n ed stai rway s as- 
cend its whitewashed face to the 
top, where there sits a pair of col- 
orful temples, one forTlaloc, the 
rain god, and the other for 
Huitzilopochtli, the sun and war 
god. Here, the Aztecs sacrificed 
human captives to sustain the 
sun on its journey across the sky. 

The exhibit designers trans- 
formed the floor of the atrium in- 
to a plaza filled with stone statu- 
ary and temple-related displays, 
including a "weeping" rain-god 
statue and a puma skull with a 
large greenstone bead between 
its formidable leeth. Carrasco 
finds compelling the juxtaposition 
of such stunning beauty and hor- 
rific violence in the Aztec culture. 
"Many capital cities will show 
both the aggression and the 
grace of a society," he says. "The 
effort that the Aztec people went 
to in order to embroider their dif- 
ficult and harsh world with these 
beautiful things is very impressive 
and inspiring to see." DO 



ruiEDiciruE 



A STRATEGIC HEALTH INITIATIVE: 
Technology tackles disease around the globe 

By Steve Nadis 



The message from Regi- 
na Shakakata, chief librar- 
ian at the University of 
Zambia Medical School, reached 
Omni'm just afew hours. It began 
at a university computer. From 
there it traveled' in the form of 
radio waves to a tiny satellite — 
called HealthSat — where It was 
loaded into an onboard comput- 
er. When HealthSat flew over St. 
John's, Newfoundland, the radio 




communi- 
cations between 
doctors in 
the industrialized 
and developing 
worlds, SatelLife 
may one day 
help ease such hu- 
man tragedy 



Somalia. 



signal was relayed yet again to 
an antenna on Earth. A computer 
there instantly forwarded the mes- 
sage, via electronic, mail, to the 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, head- 
quarters of SatelLife, which runs 
this orbital mail delivery system, 
called HealthNet. Minutes later, 
Omni received the fax. 

However circuitous its route, 
the information system could rev- 
olutionize health-care delivery in 
the developing world. The good 
news from Shakakata: HealthNet 
represents "manna from heaven." 

The International Physicians for 
the Prevention of Nuclear War 
formed SatelLife in 1989 to pro- 
mote peaceful uses of space. "In- 
stead of a Strategic Defense Ini- 
tiative — or Star Wars— we wanted 
a Strategic Health Initiative," 



says executive director Charles 
Clements. The goal: to reduce or 
eliminate disparities in medical ser- 
vices in industrialized and devel- 
oping countries. 

A third of the 44 countries in Af- 
rica cannot communicate with the 
World Health Organization's 
(WHO) African regional office in 
Brazzaville, Congo. Health work- 
ers often cannot phone or send 
a facsimile or telex from East to 
West Africa. And even when 
they are able, costs can be pro- 
hibitive; a six-page fax across the 
continent can cost 5300. "Estab- 
lishing reliable communications is 
an important priority for improving 
health in Africa," says Gottlieb 
Monekosso, director of WHO's Af- 
rican regional office. 

Mail service throughout the 
Third World is slow and unrelia- 
ble. When the director of Mozam- 
bique's National Institute of 
Health recently wrote to the Oswal- 
do Cruz Institute in Brazil— the 
world's premier tropical medicine 
center' — to seek ways of curbing 
a growing cholera epidemic, the 
S.O.S. took eight months. 

SatelLife responded by install- 
ing ground stations in Mozam- 
bique and Brazil to permit same- 
day dommunications, free of 
charge. The Brazzaville WHO of- 
fice now has a ground station en- 
abling it to contact other African 
countries with stations. The first 
satellite-assisted conversation 
took place in April 1992 when 
Mozambique and Zambian doc- 
tors agreed to share clinical re- 
ports about rare illnesses. 

By the end of this year, Satel- 
Life expects to build at least 20 
ground stations in Africa, each 
equipped with a PC, a radio re- 
ceiver and transmitter, and an an- 
tenna, (A station can simultane- 
ously receive and transmit more 
than 100 pages of text during 
each satellite pass — about four 
times a day.) The organization 



will also place a second s 

in orbit, doubling the capacity of 

the network. 

In addition to fostering commu- 
nication between health profes- 
sionals, SatelLife aims to bolster 
depleted stores of medical liter- 
ature. In 1992, financial crisis 
forced Zambia's national medical 
library to cancel its journals. 

Medical professionals in the de- 
veloping world can now tune in- 
to HealthNet News, a weekly elec- 
tronic magazine containing four 
full-text medical articles and ten 
abstracts, broadcast worldwide 
via satellite since March of 1992. 
The newsletter, edited by Ramnik 
Xavier, a physician employed by 
Massachusetts General Hospital, 
runs articles relevant to the Third 
World. Since cost prevents most 
African doctors from attending 
international meetings, Xavier, 
who was trained in Zimbabwe, al- 
so summarizes medical confer- 
ence proceedings. 

SatelLife also allows medical 
colleagues to share information 
around the world. Medical librar- 
ian Lenny Rhine at the University 
of Florida sends articles to his 
Zambian counterpart, Regina Sha- 
kakata. And the Harvard School 
of Public Health and Massachu- 
setts General Hospital hope to es- 
tablish a "call-in" service for 
HealthNet users that allows for a 
two-way data exchange. 

"There's a need for information 
from the West," says Julia Royall, 
SatelLife's deputy director. "But 
researchers here also need to 
know what's going on in Africa." 

The SatelLife team continues 
to search for new ways to expand 
its reach, providing the Third 
World a badly needed tool for 
health care. "The task for us," 
said Kenyan physicians in a re- 
cent communique to other Health- 
Net users, "is to make the 
dreams released by this technol- 
ogy a reality." DQ 




conjTifuuunn 

VICTORY BY AIR: 

Experience World War II like the pilots did. Plus : the Red Sea's parting explained, 

and why women won't run second anymore 



Where were you 50 years ago today? 
Chances are, if you were a male be- 
tween 17 and 25, you were doing your 
part in the war effort, either on the 
home front or overseas. And if you 
were college educated and had perfect 
vision and health, the chances were 
pretty good that you had something to 
do with the air war. 

If you weren't there, or weren't even 
born yet, then your ideas of this juncture 
in history were formed by stories of a fa- 
ther or great uncle, from reading 
books and biographies, and from doc- 
umentaries. You can absorb the facts, 
read about the experiences, and see 
the planes, but until recently, you 
couldn't bridge the gap between infor- 
mation and experience. And if you 
were there, chances are that for 'you, no 
history book could capture the feeling. 

One thing computer- can do, and do 
well, is simulate flight. The processors are capable of han- 
dling enough variables to accurately simulate the physics of 




Atest A dangerous air war 



l ho visonaiy ceh nd the game, sought 
to create an interactive experience 
that would fill the gap created by doc- 
umentary visuals and the far-reaching 
generalizations of history books. He 
wanted the end product to be entertain- 
ing as well as informative, to come as 
close as possible to putting a person in- 
to those airplanes and giving them an 
accurate experience. 

By utilizing a full-time researcher and 
sorting through a muftitude of accounts, 
including the Navy's own files, Dynamix 
was able to create accurate "plots" of 
the so i es. ho-'" ;he arg:es of ships to 
the position of the sun at a particular 
time of day. Utilizing technical data, 
they modeled the planes' performance 
specs into the simulation and then 
brought in pilots who had actually 
flown the planes to put the models 
through their paces and suggest those 
ntangibles that could never be set to paper. 
One thing a simulation can never re-create, however, is 



flight, but until recently, that's about all they could do. The the terror of actually being there, ol dealing with the binary 
latest explosion of computer power, as well as the solid reality of the moment. A simulation, for all practical purposes, 
growth of the software gaming industry, has produced count- is devoid of the consequences of the experience. 



less war-based flight simulators, from the Great War all the 
way up to Desert Storm, but for the most part, these simula- 
tions are merely supersophisiicated videogames. 

But the trend is changing. Historical accuracy is becoming 
a caveat in the industry Aces of the Pacific, a Pacific Thea- 
tre simulator, is one of the first software programs to bridge 
the gap between gaming and interactive experience. While 
all the elements of a good game are there, Aces takes you 
one step beyond and places you in the cockpits of the 
planes, from the F4U Corsairs l.o he Zeros. Yen, see the dash- 
board exactly as it appeared, thanks to digitally altered pho- 
tographs; you leel the jerk of the aileron lock on a lightly turn- 
ing Zero, or the shudder of an unsteady airframe during a 
TBF dive. And most of all, you fly the missions that actually 
occurred, from Pearl Harbor to the raids over Okinawa. 

Aces of the Pacific comes as close as any flight simula- 
tor can to the real experience. By putting you in the cockpit 
and giving you the most researched and historically accu- 
rate simulations of actual sorties, you can't help coming to 
the conclusion that war is a dangerous and challenging 
test where there are no true winners. 

Damon Slye, cofounder of Aces Dynamix corporation and 



Samuel Hynes, Princeton professc of heratjre, author of 
Flights of Passage and a pilot in the Pacific Theatre air war, 
points out that while a simulator can give an individual a 
taste of the' decisions and encounters inherent to flying in com- 
bat, it can never model the emotions experienced by those 
who were participants: the boredom, the grief, and the af- 
fection. He points out that words, personal narratives, and 
letters are still the most accurate method of learning about 
an individual's personal experience. (He stresses that 
these accounts be personal, not "official.") 

While a simulator can never model the life-and-death con- 
sequences of one's actions, or the human emotions of the 
war experience, it can model the decision processes and 
variables that were present at the moment. This, coupled 
with personal interaction with the actual participants, 
should give a deep and accurate historical experience. 

Currently, the market is purely consumer based, and so 
the simulations rust necessa'ily ca:er to the "romantic" eras 
of history. But perhaps time will measure just how valuable 
a tool simulation is for our children, and these first-person 
engines will migrate from the mall to the classroom. 

—PA UL C. SCHU YTEMA 




coruTinjuur 




The parting of the Hco Sea :r„;i'.os for g'oai pninli'ign bui ,! r?;r,y have been a fairly normal 



THE RED SEA 
PARTED WHEN 
THE WIND 
BLEW— MAYBE 

For years Biblical scholars, 
scientists, and ardent reli- 
gious believers have asked 
the same question about the 
ancient Israelites: How did 
they cross that Red Sea? 

Now two scientists have 
concluded that when the Old 
Testament reported that a 

26 OMNI 



"s:rong oast wind all the 
night . . . made the sea dry 
land and the waters were 
divided," the Bible could 
have in fact recorded a 
natural event. 

"If the wind blows at forty 
knots for ten hours, the 
shoreline could recede one 
mile," allowing the Israelites 
to cross the shallow Gulf of 
Suez, argues Doron Nof, 
professor of oceanography 
at Florida State University in 



Tallahassee. 

"You have to recognize' 
that the Gulf of Suez is very 
narrow, only ten or twelve 
miles wide, but it's two 
hundred and twenty miles 
long and very shallow, less 
than a hundred feet deep," 
Nof says. If the wind blew for 
half a day, it would push the 
water back to form a wave 
some ten feet high. 

If the wind then stopped 
blowing, the water would 



return and "flood the entire 
receding zone within min- 
utes," wrote Nof and Nathan 
Paldor, atmospheric science 
I Universi- 

ty in Jerusalem, in the March 
1 992 Bulletin of the American 
Meteorological Society. 

"Winds in the region have 
been measured blowing over 
the land at thirty knots for 



EACH DAY, THE WORLD 
TRADE CENTER 

TOWERS IN NEW YORK 
CITY BURN 

ENOUGH ELECTRICITY 
TO SUPPLY A U.S. 
CITY OF 100,000 PEOPLE. 



over half a day." Paldor says. 

"These conditions would 
not occur every year but are 
not so rare," Paldor contin- 
ues. "Similar phenomena 
occur in lakes such as Lake 
Erie," but since they often 
have no effect, they are 
rare-/ -e ported. 

The scientists believe the 
wind might have pushed the 
water into "a wall unto them 
on their right hand," as the 
Bole says, exposing a ridge 
of sea bottom about ten miles 
long. On the left may have 
been a deep area that the 
wind couldn't empty. 

Both believers and 
nonbelievers have claimed 
that the findings prove their 
views about the Exodus. "But 
one group accused me of 
being a faith extinguisher," 
Nof says. — Ben Barber 

"The secret of making one- 
self tiresome is not 
knowing when to stop. " 

— Voltaire 



CONVERTING 
CONVERTERS 

Some 33,000 catalytic con- 
verters from junked cars pile 
up on the scrap heap every 
day in the United States. A 

fledgling Darby, Montana, 
company puts them to use to 
help itself and the environ- 
ment, extracting millions of 
dollars worth of platinum, 
palladium, and rhodium from 
the converters' innards by 
means of a simple, pollution- 
free recovery system. 

Since the late 1970s, all 
cars sold in the United States 
have had a converter to help 
turn toxic exhaust gases into 
harmless compounds. Each 
of the gadgets contains up to 
S120 worth of the precious 
metals that Mel Pervais of 
Rhodium 2001 mines; plati- 
num alone sells for around 
$95 an ounce, rhodium for 
$1 ,800 to $1 ,900 an ounce. 
But the metallic coatings 
aren't the only valuable part 
of the converters; markets 
abound for the ceramics and 
the stainless-steel housings 
of the converters as well. 

Pervais, a Chippewa 
Indian who amassed millions 
of dollars by providing 
engineers to start up nuclear 
power plants, is so close- 
mouthed about the process 
that he hasn't even sought a 
patent lest Japanese recy- 
clers, already active in 
platinum recovery, appropri- 
ate his technology. Rhodium 
2001 acquired rights to the 
system from Dallas inventor 
C. A. Dickey, who discovered 
a way to put a telltale aroma 
in previously odorless natural 
gas. "The process doesn't 
involve anything you couldn't 
buy in a grocery store," 




producer Mel Pervais 

Pervais says. "It's a com- 
pletely closed-loop system 
that doesn't discharge any 
byproducts into the air or the 
ground." 

Essentially, the process 
involves washing truckloads 
of crushed converters in a 
solution containing sail wstei" 
and no more chlorine than 
you'd find In a public ' 
swi—ming pool. "It's essen- 
tially a washing machine," 
Pervais says. "We don't need 
a big polluting smelter like 
the Japanese to do the job." 

The company has begun 
trucking catalytic converters 
to Pervais' 1,400-acre 
Chief Joseph ranch. 
Pervais estimates he will 
start taking in $10 million 
annually within 12 months 
and become the largest 
platinum producer in the 
world within five years. 
"Not bad for a boy just off 
the reservation," says Per- 
vais, who is fond of 
referring to his heri- 
tage in that fashion. 
— George Nobbe 



A NEW KIND OF 
JUICY FRUIT 

It may never replace the 
orange, but the fruit that U.S. 
Department of Agriculture 
horticulturists got when they 
crossed the northern may- 
pop, an ornamental fruit- 
bsanng Maryland wildflower, 
with the tropical passion fruit 
has something else going for 
it; It can withstand the 
frequent freezes that often 
decimate groves of oranges 
and grapefruit. 

That alone makes 13 years 
of painstaking crossbreeding 
worth the effort for Robert J. 
Knight of the USDA Re- 



Georgia, and after that, we'll 
probably turn it loose to 
breeders in a few years. It 
contains aromatics, and it 
could be a useful fruit crop." 

Maypop, or Passiflora 
incamaia, has been around 
since the Ice Age, but it 
wasn't until the late 1970s 
that Knight began crossing it 

, an 
edible, tropical cousin. The 
early results weren't encour- 
aging; They produced a 
hollow, sterile fruit about the 
size of a Ping-Pong ball, 
because the chromosomes 
of the maypop couldn't pair 
normally with its cousin's 
chromosomes. So Knight 



THE 1 .1 MILLION TONS OF DISPOSABLE PLATES AND 
CUPS THAT AMERICANS USE EACH 
YEAR WOULD BE SUFFICIENT TO SERVE A PICNIC TO 
EVERYONE IN THE WORLD SIX TIMES A YEAR. 



search Service in Miami. The 
edible, juicy fruit could 
eventually be grown as an 
al'.cmative crop as far north 
as Washington, DC, making 
its value to growers in the 
S3. 2 billion fruit industry 
incalculable. 

"The question is, will it fruit 
dependably?" Knight says. 
"It's being evaluated now at 
the USDA's Southeast Fruit 
and Tree Nut Research 
Laboratory near Macon, 

tolerate the winter freezes 
that destroy citrus-fruit crops. 



began applying doses of the 
alkaloid colchicine, which 
causes chromosomes to 
double in number. Now he 
gets fuzzy green, maroon, 
and yellow fruit a bit larger 
than baseballs. 

"They're never going to 
replace oranges or grape- 
fruit," he admits, "but they 
could be a good cold- 
weather alternative crop." 

— George Nobbe 





corirnfuuunn 



WOMEN PLAYING 
CATCH-UP— 
AND WINNING 

Will women — long consid- 
ered the "weaker sex" — one 
day compete against men in 
world-class foot races? It's a 
distinct possibility, according 
to two University of California, 
Los Angeles, researchers 
who discovered that top- 
ranked female runners are 
improving twice as fast as 
their male counterparts. 

Brian J. Whipp, professor 
of physiplpgy, and Susan A. 
Ward, professor of anestnes - 
ology, began studying run- 
ners to determine the 
physiological and metabolic 
factors that allow athletes to 
continue breaking records in 
competitive running events. 

l! What we wanted was an 
index ofthe metabolic rate 
during the race, so we 
decided io plot the mean 
velocity, or the average 
speed,atwhicharaceisrun, 
arriving at a world record," 
Whipp explains. 

Soseay Jackie Joyner-Kersee 



Analyzing the records of 
world-class men in a variety 
of running events over the 
past century, the researchers 
found, surprisingly, no indica- 
tion at all that male athletes 
have approached their 
physiological limits. 

"We expected the times to 
head toward some sort of 
plateau," Whipp says. "But 
we found to our surprise that, 
over the time span studied, 
the events increased linearly. 
There was no evidence of it 
flattening off." 

Whipp and Ward then 
looked at available stats for 
female runners and turned 
up the same linear increase 
and something more — 
wG'~en are imp.-oving almost 
twice as fast as men. 

Many factors contribute to 
the unexpected increase, but 
the most significant one is 
simply that "more and more 
women from different geo- 
graphical regions are begin- 
ning to participate in 
competitive athletics," Whipp 
explains. "So as the sample 
broadens, you're'much more 
likely to match the intrinsic 
genetic makeup of the 
athlete to the physiological 
demands of the event." 

Does this mean that men 
and women will eventually 
compete side by side in the 
Olympic Games of the , 
future? The answer is a 
deNnile maybe. 

"The question is, are these 
rates going to continue in the 
future," Whipp points out. 
"No one can answer that. But 
if the rates of improvement 
do continue as they have, 
then sometime in the middle 
of the twenty-first century, 
men and women wlll'be 
running at approximately the 



same speed. 

"The evidence of the past 
century suggests there's no 
reason to suspect that the 
1990s version of Homo 



sapiens represents the 
ultimate flower ng of a:h etic 
pcterdal," Whipp continues. 
"That goes for men and 
women." — Don Vaughan 




Go™ 10 Lender; ? Vr; L .. dor, ■ r;i:od Big Bur to 



OUI, SI, YAH, 
I'VE GOT THE TIME 

■Finding out the local-time 
whenyou're in a foreign city 
could soon be as easy- as' 
glancing at your watch as 
you step off the plane: 
Judah Klausner; a New 
York City inventor, has 
patented. a radio receiver, 
'contained' in an integrated 
circuit, that fits into.a watch. 

"The radio receiver . 
detects radio frequencies 
being broadcast in any 
city," Klausner explains, 
"andsince every city's 
collection of frequencies is 
unique, like a fingerprint, 
the receiver can compare 
them tothe fingerprints' in 
its database." The receiver 
also accesses each collec- 
tion's time- differential rela- 
tive to Greenwich' Mean '■ 
Time. It then adjusts the 



watch to allow for the 
current time difference. 
"And as a backup time 
check " Klausner adds, 
"every so often the watch 
searches for the hourly time 
signal that many, radio ■ 
s"ai:0'is emit." 

The watch will keep 
.correcting the time' no 
matter how many time 
zones the wearer visits. 
Walch.os Aiib dispay pan- 
els will also show the name 
of the city that the wearer' is 
currently in. 

Rather than manufac- 
turing : ,\~b waicnes himself, 
Ka.isner, who also invent- 
ed the Sharp Wizard 
hand-held computer, will ." 
simply sell the integrated- 
r; 'Chi radio receivers to 
watch companies. Several ■ 
have already' expressed 
interest, he says. 
— Franceses Lunzer K ilz 




caruTiruuurm 




EXERCISE AT A 
QUARTER A PLAY 

Videogames have taken the 
blame for everything from 
kids' shrinking attention span 
to falling SAT scores. But 

recent research by physiolo- 
gist Karen Segal shows that 
they have at least one 
redeeming characteristic: Play- 
ing an arcade-style video- 
game burns as many 
calories as taking a walk. 

Segal, associate professor 
of pediatrics at Cornell 
University Medical College/ 
New York Hospital, was 
concerned about obesity in 
children and the tendency of 
kids who watch a lot of TV to 
gain weight. She wondered if 
playing videogames might 
contribute to obesity in the 
same way. 

To find out, she had 32 
males and females aged 16 
to 25 play Ms. Pac-Man while 
monitoring their heart rate, 
blood pressure, and oxygen 
consumption, an indicator of 
calories burned. All three 
indicators jumped significant- 



ly while the subjects played 
the arcade game, compared 
to when they simply stood in 
front of the machines, 



IN MEDIEVAL TIMES, 
SAILORS WERE TERRIFIED 
BY THE HUMBLE 
BARNACLE, THOUGHT TO 
8E AN ENORMOUS 
CREATURE THAT ATE THE 
HULLS OF SHIPS. 



meaning that kids can 
actually burn extra calories 
while having electronic fun, 
according to Segal. 

"Muscle contraction, move- 
ment, and some degree of 
psychological stress" in- 
volved in playing the game 
cause the increase in 
physical exertion. In fact, 
these iactors create enough 
exertion to expend about the 
same number of calories 
while playing the arcade 
game as when walking at a 
fwo-mile-per-hour saunter. 



So do Segal's findings 
mean that playing a really 
exciting videogame might 
replace a regular exercise 
regimen? "Sorry," Segal 
says, "but no game could be 
that challenging." 

—Paul McCarthy 

THE CARBO CURE 

"I'd kill for a hot-fudge 
sundae!" According to Judith 
Wurtman and Richard J. 
Wurtman, those are often the 
words of women with 
premenstrual syndrome 
(PMS). Not only do women 
with PMS crave carbohy- 
drates before their menstrual 
cycle, their craving has-an 
organic cause, according to 
the Wurtmans' research. 
Judith Wurtman is a research 
scientist in the Massachu- 
setts Institute ot Technol- 
ogy's brain and cognitive 
sciences department, and 
neuroscience professor Rich- 
ard specializes in brain 
chemistry at MIT's Clinical 
Research Center. 

The Wurtmans gave wom- 
en experiencing PMS and 
women in a control group a 
choice of either high- 
carbohydrate foods — pota- 
toes, rice, candy, cookies — 
or high-protein foods — 
chicken, cheese, tuna salad. 
While the members of the 
control group didn't alter their 
eating, women with PMS 
increased their consumption 
of high-carbohydrate foods 
for three or four days before 
their periods began. 

Eating carbohydrates in- 
creases the level of seroto- 
nin, a neurotransmitter that 
affects mood states. The 
women with PMS in the 
Wurtmans' study reported 



feeling 'substantially calmer, 
substantially less tired, and 
more alert" after eating a 
large bowl of corn flakes. 
"When women choose to eat 
carbohydrates just before 
their period begins," Judith 
Wurtman says, "they're doing 
so in order to make 
themselves feel better." 

But before you order that 
carbohydrate- 1 ad en hot- 
fudge sundae to treat PMS, 
consider this. Psychiatrist 
Christiane Siewers in Pitts- 
burgh and other researchers 
have found reductions in 
PMS symptoms when women 
eliminate alcohol, caffeine, 
and sugar from their diets. 
Hot-fudge sundaes, of 
course, are loaded with 
sugar and caffeine as well as 
fat, so try more complex 
carbohydrates instead. 

— Rosanne M. Bane 

"Art, like speech, is a means 
of communication 

and therefore of progress, 
that is, of the move- 
ment of humanity forward. " 
— Leo Tolstoy 



The Extraterrestrials Are Hen 




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BEHIND THE SCENES OF STAR TREK: 



J 









ARTICLE BY DAVID RISCNOFF 
PHOTOGRAPH BY TOM ZIMBEROFF 



Paramount Pictures 
Sound stage 4 

Security yuatds 
patrol here beneath 
the smoggy Los 
Angeles sunshine. A 
vaultlike door swings 
open, and you walk 
only a few yards into 
the dimness, clus- 
tered with klieg 
tights, director's 
chairs, and busy 
technicians carrying 
booms or Panavision 
cameras or leaning 
over sound-record- 
ing devices. Walk 
down a corridor past 
set-support struts, 
through the smell o' 
sawdust and cc f 'ee 
and makeup. "la-<e a 
right past a table 
with scripts labetod 
■STAR TREK. 

The twenty-rloL'tc 
century.. 

Deep Space Nino 

We're sure-rot on 
the Enterprise any- 
more, Toto. 

We're not soo-hed 
' : and comforted h&'u 
with soft lights, 
rounded contours. 
We're in a space 
station from an 
arachnid's Twihgn: 
Zone. The jagged 
halls and concours- 
es and Op Center 
are darker, edgier, 
alive with alien archi- 
tecture. Strangeness 
enfolds you here, 
surrounding you with 
odd alloys, twisted 
graphics, eldritch 
hues. Los Angeles? 
Light-years distant. 
Forgotten, This brood- 
ing place is steeped 
with memorfes'o'f 
cruelty and yn 
human minds. 

This is the alien 
space station Deep 
Space Nine, the 
next stop of the Slat 
Trek saga. 

Time to meet the 




people who are trying to 
make it their .home. 

"The vision of Gene 
Roddenberry was the 
inspiration for this series," 
says Michael Pilfer, one of 
two creators and ex- 
ecutive producers of the ■ 
new show. "It will be as 
optimistic and hopeful and 
constructive in terms of 
how it approaches the 
future of humankind as 
Gene designed it for Star 
Trek." Filler has piloted the 




son Jake. 



script department of Star 
Trek: The Next Generation 
since the third season. 
STTNG is presently in the 
middle of its sixth season, 
with no end of its journey 
in official sight. All 
associated with the show 
take pains to state that 
DS9 is not a replacement 
for STTNG. 

Might DS9 be consid- 
ered a complement? 

"One of the primary 
goals in making this series 
is to do something we 
didn't have the opportunity 
to do in Next Generation. 
Gene felt that the human 
being would evolve suffi- 
ciently by the twenty- 




Hwa^^^e is a portal... ■ 
through space, and 
possibly time, creat- 
ed by a.btac'k hole ; 
linked to its opposite! 
white hole somewhere 
else. A bteck : .hQie,of' 
course, .is a-collapsed 
neutron, star that has 
teetereo past the 
three-solar-rnass limit— 
calculated by a dying 
World War. I German 
Soldier, Karl Schwarzs- ' 
child— into: the twilight 
zone of Einstein's' 
General Theory' 

It w;as Aiberi Einstein, 
with his Special- Theory 
of: Relativity in- 1 905 and 
his General Theory of 
Relativity in 1916, who 
set up the parameters of 
infinity. The former, of 
course, .pegged. the : 
speed of light for all 
observers at 1 ; 86,0Q0 .:■■'. 
miles per second. The' 
latter showed how the 
gravitational field of ..- .' 
matter defines the uni- 
verse through gravita- 
tional -force.' The larger './■' 
the mass, the larger the 
gravitational -field. The 
very stuff of space and ■ 
time can be considered 
physica! entities. ■' 
■ . A' black hole is. matter 
that -has become. so 
dense- that its center ; - . 
approaches infinite den- ■ 
sify.' it becomes a.' '..' 
singularity. Anything.- ■ . 
that enters gets 
scrunched. Get too 



close and you Can't get 
out..Pnce you've-. ■■ 
■crossed- the. event nor j- . 
zon — the area Surround- 
ing the black hole where..- 
only speeds faster than' 
light can escape-- . 
■ you're there, and pre- 
sumably in trouble. 

Schwa.'zschiid's calcu- 
lations-showed black 
:hoie.s. not rotating. In the 
'1960s, however, M. D. 
Kruskal, R/.H.-Boyer,.R. 
W.- Lindquist, ana partic- 
ular 1 ^ Roy Kerr wilh. his ■ 
Kerr Solution to Ein- 
stein's 1916 equations. 
produced, work. that 
showed how space and 
time could be warped, 
around black holes. In ; 
1973, David Robinson 
showed, that black- holes 
.rn.ust-'rotate.-'The Law of . 
Symmetry .would indi--' . 
cat.e, some theorists 
speculate, the existence 
df.a:black hole's, 
counterpoint — a white 
hole. Matter sucked in 
by a. black hole near 
Piutp,; surfing around ' 
that nasly old singularity 
■butunable.- to get back 
past the event horizon, 
might simply whoosh 
out through a white hole 
in Andromeda' 

What mysteries will 
emerge from the worm- 
hole by Deep Space 
'Nine? What adven- 
tures. will-be had 
passing' through it?- 

Stay tuned! 



fourth century to lose the 
petty jealousies and the 
character flaws that hcund 
us in the twentieth. What 
that does. from the 
dramatic standpoint is to 
make it very difficult to get 
conflict between human 
beings. So we felt that it 
was terribly important to 
put our characters in a 
situation that would have 
inherent conflict, which 
makes it easier to write 
and also gives us the 
opportunity to explore the 
human condition." 

"Deep Space Nine has 
more edge to it," says Rick 
Berman, the show's other 
creator and executive 
producer. "I think we've 
got a remarkable cast of 
characters. We've got 
relationships that will 
accomplish what we 
couldn't on Next Genera- 
tion. We've got a number 
of known and unknown 
actors that are about as 
good an ensemble as I've 
ever worked with. We're 
taking advantage of the 
production and postproduc- 
tion group of The Next 
Generation. We've got a 
family here that's worked 
together for almost six 
years and has done some 
wonderful stuff. It's like a 
rebirth. We've got a 
remarkable group of peo- 
ple in front of the camera 
and behind the camera. 
That's what's going to 
make this work." 

Berman emphasizes the 
importance of Gene Rod- 
denberry to the new show. 
"Star Trek is not about the 
twenty-fourth century. Star 
Trek is about Rod- 
denberry's vision of the 
twenty-fourth century." 

Berman has been with 
Next Generation from the 
beginning. "Gene and I 
were close friends. We 
worked together almost six 
years. I joined him 
knowing very little about 
Star Trek and ended up 



carrying the flame for him. 
I learned Roddenberry's 
languages and beliefs. I 
became Roddenberry in 
absentia. Everything that 
Sfar Trek has been is 
because of Roddenberry's 
influence on me." 

What is the background 
amidst which this new 
space station hangs? 

Begin with Bajor. 

As related in the 
ST;TNG episodes "Ensign 
Ro" and "The Wounded," 
a hundred years before, 
the planet Bajor and its 
inhabitants were con- 
quered by the ruthless 

. However, 
an terrorists have finally 
convinced the Cardas- 
sians to withdraw unilat- 
erally not only from Bajor, 
but from Bajoran space, 
albeit leaving behind a 
plundered and ravaged 
world. The newly inde- 
pendent Bajorans request 
entry into the Federation. 



hero," says Filler, "a man 
who is not just the Starfleet 
officer who has given up 
family for career, like 
Picard; not like Kirk, who's 
one of the boys on a great 
adventure. He's a man 
who has had a family and 
has lost a wife he loved 
and must raise a son." 

"He's very human, isn't 
he?" comments Avery 
Brooks, in a powerful yet 
sensitive voice as he sits 
in the actors' lounge, 





A Starfleet team, head- 
ed by Commander Ben- 
jamin Sisko, is posted on 
an abandoned Cardassian 
space station orbiting 
Bajor — dubbed Deep 
Space Nine. He brings 
along his fourteen-year- 
old son, Jake, and a 
grudge. He los.t his wife to 
' the Borg attack on 
Starileet headed by Lo- 
cutus— none other than 
the Borgified Captain 
Jean-Luc Picard of the 
U.S.S. Enterprise, who 
guest stars on the 
two-hour premiere due in 
early January 1993. 

"We wanted to create a 
new kind of Sfar Trek 



studying his ines between 
takes. "So much of the 
military veneer is not there. 
He expresses what he 
feels." A man of great 
theatrical presence, 
Brooks is best known for 
his ten years of stage 
performances in the title 
role of Paul Robeson and 
for his TV role of Hawk in 
Spenser: For Hire. "Sisko 
isn't particularly interested 
in being here. He's 
following orders. He's 
worried about raising his 
son in this environment. 
This station has been 
devastated. It's very analo- 
gous to the present-day ur- 
ban situation." 



[ftp] N» 
Visitor. (Center) 
Arntin Shirmer 
as Quark. 
(Bottom left) 
production design- 
er Herman 
Zimmerman (left) 
and Marvin 
Rush, director 
of photography. 
(Right) Rene 
Auberjonois 
plays Odo. 



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The Cardass:,vr i space station, in con- 
trast to the sleek and smooth-running 
Enterprise of ST.TNG, is a cobbled- 
together mess, a Dickensian stew of rac- 
es and technology teetering on disas- 
ter. Keeping il glued together is the du- 
ty of a transfer from the Enterprise, 
Chief Operations Officer Miles O'Brien, 
played by Colm Meaney "It's the ex- 
act opposite situation from the Enter- 
prise, where everything was perfect," 
states Meaney. "Nothing works over 
here. O'Brien is chief of operations on 
the show, head of all the technological 
aspects of the stations. He deals with 
it well — he's pretty competent, O'Brien. 
He's got a bit of a temper, though, and 
there may be some spanners thrown," 
Already on board is the promising char- 
acter of Odo, piayed by Rene Auber- 
jonois who may be remembered by 
most TV viewers from Benspn, and a gift- 
ed, award-winning theatre actor 
whose classical training is being 
tapped for this new role. 

"This character is just great," enthus- 
es Auberjonois. A startling new kind of 
shapeless alien makeup through 
which he's now sipping soup for lunch 
covers his usually expressive and dis- 
tinctive features. "He's a shapeshrter. 
In the pilot, he says, T don't know 
where I came from; I don't know if 
there's anyone else like me; I've always 
had to pass myself off as human. . . .' 
Odo was found floating in a starbelt. No- 
body knows what he is or where he 
came from. He takes human shape, but 
he's really a plasma, a liquid form. The 
gimmick is that he shifts, using the film 
technique called 'morphing' which you 
saw in Terminator It. So far, I've been 
a knapsack, a chair, and a rat. But the 
most interesting thing about Odo to me 
is not the shapesh "ting, out his perspec- 
tive on humanity. He's an incredibly hon- 
orable character, very humorless 
which, of course, makes him very fun- 
ny. He's emotion.?,., but glacial. The char- 
acter represents ihe 3e.~e place in the 
drama here as Gpock and Data in the 
previous Star Treks. His dilemma is 
thai he has been forced to take the 
form of a humanoid. He's not able to ex- 
ist as he really is." Odo is a creature 
searching for his identity. 

Quark, played by Armin Shirmer, is 
a disreputable but sympathetic Feren- 
gi who's a bartender in the Promenade, 
a free-for-all trading and market area bus- 
tling with concessions sold by Cardas- 
sians to all manner of races. Quark will 
have, his larcenous fingers in all man- 
ner of contraband, including the sexu- 
al holosuites upstairs in his bar, a kink- 
ier version of the new generation Enter- 
prise's holodecks. 

Also assigned to the station are Ma- 



jor Kira Nerys, a Bajoran former terror- 
ist, a late but crucial arrival to the char- 
acter roster. 

Executive Producer Michael Filler ex- 
plains her origins as well as the begin- 
nings of DS9: "We had created the En- 
sign Ro character last season and cre- 
ated a set of aliens in the Bajorans and 
the Cardassians and a situation that 
was sort of a Palestinian- or Israeli- or 
American Indian-tale situation of a dis- 
enfranchised people dominated for 
years. Unfortunately, the actress who 
plays Ro (Micheie Forbes) wasn't inter- 
ested in a series. We had to write her 
out so that the situation remained. How- 
ever, from this we established one of 
the most interesting relationships, 
which is that of Major Kira." 

"I'm a Bajoran and ex-terrorist, an ab- 
solute nationalist," says Nana Visitor, a 
tough, young New York actress, of her 
character Major Kira in her trailer dur- 
ing a break in shooting. "I would like to 
see Bajor totally independent. The 
Cardassians left because Bajor was no 
longer fruitful for them. They strip- 
mined it, then took off. But nowthat it's 
strategically important, they regret hav- 
ing left and would like it back." 

Lieutenant Jadzia Dax serves as the 
science officer. "She's a Trill, a joint spe- 
cies comprised of two separate bui in- 
terdependent entities: a host and a sym- 
bibnt," says Terry Farrell, a glamorous, 
irreverent lady. She perches atop a 
barstool in Quark's bar while setpeople 
work nearby, preparing the Promenade 
for filming the next day. Farrell was 
most recently seen in Hellraiser Three. 
Her smile rivals the brightest of studio 
lights — and her humor is decidedly 
bawdy. Yet, she plays a decidedly 
cool and somber character. 

How does it feel to have an ancient, 
brilliant worm inside of you? "Hot!" She 
breathes huskily. "You'll never know." 
All the actors seem very excited about 
the possibilities of their new parts, and 
she's no exception. -'My body and 
brain — Jadzia — has the hormones of a 
iwftrty-eight-year old healthy female. 
The three-hundred-year old worm — 
Dax— has the wisdom. I'm the science 
officer. Dax would say, 'Hey! Sex is 
just for procreation.'" Farrell smiles coy- 
ly. "Though after three hundred years, 
I would imagine I'm pretty good at it!" 

A definite fan of the new science of- 
ficer is Dr. Julian Bashir. "He has such 
a puppy-dog crush on Dax," she ex- 
plains. "The twenty-eight-y ear-old part 
is attracted — but the 300-year-old is 
just amused. It's so much fun!" 

"Doctor Julian Bashir is from Earth," 
says Siddig El Fadil, whose deep, dark 
eyes and charm may well conquer even 
the 300-year-old Dax. "He's just left Star- 



fleet med school with flying colors. He 
chose Deep Space Nine. He specia iz- 
es in alien life forms. He's confident be- 
cause he's quite brilliant. But in real 
life, he's liable to make mistakes, be- 
cause real life doesn't work as well as 
textbooks do." 

"We're going to have a lot more hu- 
mor in Deep Space Nine than in Next 
Generation," Rick Berman cites as an- 
other difference between the two, Also, 
it would seem that more attention 3 go- 
ing to be paid to alien religions. The Bajor- 
ans are a deeply spiritual species. Their 
spiritual masters are ~:onks who chant in 
three-chord voices and have their own 
version of the Dalai Lama — an elderly 
woman named the Kai Opaka with 
deep mystical powers. Sisko finds him- 
self consulting with her often. The core 
of the premiere episode is the discov- 
ery in the Bajoran system of the only sta- 
ble wormhole in known space (see 
page 36), a fabulous portal to distant 
points in the galaxy and perhaps be- 
yond. This wormhole is the province ot 
alien beings somehow beyond our own 
spacetime continuum who have been 
sending out exploratory orbs. 

In the initial episode, it falls to Com- 
mander Sisko to communicate with 
these beings in the midst of a crisis in- 
volving Cardassians sniffing around 



their old territory. 

Ultimately, the wormhole is opened 
to intergalactic travel, making DS9 not 
only a crossroads :o ,_ ships and excite- 
ment — but also the most strategic 
point in the galaxy for any race with a 
hunger for conquesl. 

A likely spot for the clash of science 
and race and character and ideas. . 

Supporting this wondrous net of fu- 
turistic science and technology are con- 
temporary wizards of artistic science 
and technology — the special-effects 
folks, the designers, the sounds and 
technical people whose work on Star 
Trek: The Next Generation has earned 
them high honors in their fields. 

Rick Sternbach, graphic designer, for 
example, is also a well-known SF illustra- 
tor and astronomical artist. Michael 
Okuda is another graphic designer who 
has also worked with Rick and the pro- 
ducers and story editors to forge a co- 
herent world of science and technol- 
ogy — as exemplified by their Star Trek: 
The Next Generation Technical Manu- 
al. I spoke to them amidst their art- 
department computers, props, raw ma- 
terials, and bustling coworkers. 

Both contribute also to another import- 
ant aspect of Next Generation, and 
now, Deep Space Nine. 

"Our desire is to do consistent sci- 



fMiS PffiNO vWS owce 
, owned 8V STEPHEN King 





ence in both shows," says Sternbach. 
"Deep Space Nine might have more ac- 
tion, more adventure. Still, there will be 
the same constraints, the same philos- 
ophy. We believe Star Trek has the re- 
sponsibility to society to teach some- 
thing as well as entertain -It's not just a 
TV show. Star Trek has gone for quali- 
ty in a major way. We're socially respon- 
sible, but a lot ol fun, too. Trek doesn't 
exist to beat people over the head wiih 
lessons. But when you total up all the 
episodes in some future time, I think 
you'll find that a lot of them will be 
good lessons that won't be pedantic — 
not just for kids, but everyone." 

Okuda agrees. "I'm most proud of 
the fact that these, are the only shows 
on TV that say, 'Science is neat; sci- 
ence is fun; science is an endeavor 
worth pursuing.' In this society, which 
has become frighteningly antisoienoe, 
antiiecrnoogy. anfmtslligsnce, I'm very 
proud to be associated with a show 
that promotes these values." 

Okuda and Stcrbach police the lan- 
guage of the show as well, reading Sci- 
entific American, Aviation Week, and 
Technology ReviewXo help provide the 
complex prosody of jargon for which 
Next Generation is famous — and will car- 
ry over into Deep Space Nine. "A lot of 
times a term will show up in the show, 
and then we make sure we use it 
again," says Okuda. 

"We feel very strongly, in the spirit of 
Roddenberry, that the science should 
be credible," says Michael Filler. "This 
is not a fantasy. If there is something 
weird and fantastic, then we must find 
some way to give it a basis in science 
as grounding. I hat's the difference be- 
tween sword and sorcery and science 
fiction. We lake iha- very seriously. We'll 
celiniioly be oushing the envelope of ide- 
as and concepts in both shows. After 
two hundred-plus episodes, you're go- 
ing to start pushing envelopes to go on- 
ward with new and interesting ideas." 

Postproduclion special effects, head- 
ed by visual-effects producer Rob Le- 
gato, fill in not just the phaser bolts, but 
the astronomical sights as well, all of 
which are based on the latest research 
and scientific speculation as to what neu- 
tron stars, nebulae, planets, and, of 
course, wormholes might look like. 

And Deep Space Nine, the space sta- 
tion itself? 

"I just saw the model this morning," 
says Herman Zimmerman, production 
designer, hu'rying between set work to 
view the day's film, "Incredible. The 
best miniature I've ever seen." 

Consistency ■ is not just the keynote 
for the language and concepts here, 
but the visuals as well. Each alien cul- 
ture is analyzed, their personalities re- 

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of. hundred years or so, historians look back on our time, a smalt footnote 



smewhere "in an electronic textbook might say of Star Trek, "It was a uniquely American cu 



hich occurred in the latter half of the twentieth century, a rich collection of : 



sic and enduring appeal was that they held a positive view of humankind's 



future. Despite the fact that its messages were cou 



C. 



Star Trek's cinematic voyages into the 



s to those questions, always postulating a rational order to nature and the 



universe and lauding humankind's highest ambitions and greatest moral and scientific achievements." 



DESIGNING A BELIEVABLE FUTURE IS HARD AND WONDERFUL WORK. 




And if there were 
room in this footnote for 
another line or two, it 
might continue: "The 
idea of space as the 'fi- 
nal frontier' captured the 
imaginations of several 
generations of Ameri- 
cans, made mythologi- 
cal icons ol the actors in- 
.volved, and helped to 
make popular the notion 
that, with the help of sci- 
ence, the exploration of 
space might be possi- 
ble. In their dreams, 
twentieth-century msn 
and women projected 
themselves 400 years in- 
to the future, experi- 
enced the wonders and 
dangers they imagined 
there, and focused on 
space travel and scien- 
tific research in space 
as humankind's great- 
est challenge." 

So much for foot- 
notes. Just now, in the 
1990s, with the twenty- 
first century ahead on 
the horizon, we are still 
actively engaged in mak- 
ing that history. With a 
two-hour premiere epi- 
sode, "Emissary," Star 
Trek: Deep Space 
Nine, Paramount Pic- 
tures' most recent 
incarnation of Gene 
Roddenberry's orig- 
inal series, has once 
again beamed onto our 
television screens and 
promises to be a dark- 
er, grittier, more visceral adventure than has gone before. 

As the production designer of this exciting new series; I 
have had the good fortune to be one of a privileged group 
of artists who have had the opportunity to imagine and give 
substance to an extraordinary view of the future — one in 
which racism no longer exists and every person can live up 
to his or her potential, where disease is virtually unknown, 
and where science, which has led us to the mastery of our 
planet and ourselves, has now turned us toward the stars. 

Because we have a "willing suspension of disbelief" at 
work when we see a drama unfold, we may not notice the 
obvious, but in a very real sense, everything seen on a motion- 



The design team, 
including Zimmerman 
and artists and 
designers Rick Sternbach, 
Ricardo Delgado, 
and Michael Okuda, give 
shape to both the 
form and function of Deep 
Space Nine's models 
and sets. Original sketch- 
es are shown here 
and on the previous page. 




picture or television 
screen is'an illusion. 
The filmmakers — the illu- 
sionists — share with us 
bits and pieces of their 
imaginings, which are 
edited together, sweet- 
ened with visual and 
sound effects, scored, ti- 
tled, and served up for 
our amusement. 

The motion-picture 
production designer is 
the architect of these il- 
lusions because, except 
for the actors, the design- 
er and his or her staff 
are ultimately responsi- 
ble for the "look" of eve- 
rything seen on the 
screen: all the exterior 
and interior architecture, 
ail the furniture and fur- 
nishings, all the back- 
grounds, and every- 
thing surrounding or han- 
dled by actors. The pro- 
duction designers hand 
guides the creation of a 
total environment in 
which the acting out of 
a story can seem to be 
completely believable. 
The illusion of the future presents the designer with an un- 
usually difficult challenge. In "slice of life" drama, the de- 
signer can count on having available the trappings of eve- 
ryday life, with the ability to buy or rent or make just about 
anything needed to manufacture the environment for a pre- 
sent-day living room, dining room, and kitchen, or a rundown 
neighborhood bar, or the interior of a jetliner. All the elements 
needed for these kinds of settings can be found and assem- 
bled more or less readily out of common stuff. Even histori- 
cal places and objects from the past can be found and 
used to create the illusion of a bygone age. But almost noth- 
ing about the future exists in the present. 

Any person asked to create that which does not exist 
from ideas which are, at best, fanciful visions written in air 
has to be an illusionist. He or she is probably a person who 
always looks at things with an eye to making them more pleas- 
ing, more graceful, more functional, or maybe just different- 
one who sees things as they could be, not merely as they 
are. It seems likely that such a person would be childlike in 
a healthy sort of way and ask what-if questions ail the time. 
And if this person is a designer and is interested in science 
fiction and has available popular science magazines, bulle- 
tins from NASA, the work of avant-garde architects and il- 
lustrators, and a vivid imagination, he or she might extrapo- 




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late from what is happening today in sci- 
ence and sociology and art a version 
of what the future might look like, and 
somehow translate that into designs for 
"real things from the future" that can ex- 
ist in the present, This is not as weird 
an exercise as it might seem. For in- 
stance, in 400 years, human beings 
will no doubt still be the same relative 
size and shape, will still need to eat, 
will still wear clothing, and will still 
sleep a certain portion of each day. So, 
chairs and tables and beds and hats 
and coats and shoes will still be around. 
What they might look like is less easily 
guessed. Microbiology and microtech- 
nology and the proliferation of electronic 
gadgets and inventions will probably 
continue well past the twenty-fifth cen- 
tury. And certainly we might expect 
that there will, finally, be some source 
of pollution -free power (dylithium crys- 
tals?) and that computers (with fiber- 
optic shunt networks?) will be voice- 
activated and run everything. So, 
armed with that information and given 
a direction from the writers and produc- 
ers, all the environments for a show or 
movie must be invented by the design- 
er and manufactured and used in a way 
that seems correct to the audience. 

Last March, a design group was or- 
ganized by Rick Berman and Michael 
Filler, the 'two executive producers and 
creators of Deep Space Nine, and su- 
pervising producer David Livingston, to 
conceptualize an alien space station. 
The space station would be at the far- 
thest edge of the galaxy, near an M- 
class planet (the Starfleet designation 
for a planet that will support human 
life) called Bajor, and in close proximi- 
ty to the only known stable wormhole 
in the universe. The wormhole (see 
page 36) is a shortcut through space — 
a passageway to distant, unexplored re- 
gions. Its discovery will turn Bajor (and 
the station, Deep Space Nine) into the 
leading center of commerce and explora- 
tion in the sector. 

Of Cardassian design and using Bajor- 
an slave labor, the station was built as 
a platform from which the Cardassian 
masters could direct mining operations 
on the planet and transport the mineral 
wealth of Bajor to their system. Howev- 
er, now that the Cardassians have de- 
pleted the planet of its valuable miner- 
als, their interest in Bajor has dwindled, 
and the station is abandoned by them 
only to be taken over by a Starfleet 
crew of officers and Bajoran personnel. 

The prime directive from the show's 
producers was that the station itself 
must be a principal character in the dra- 
ma, just as the starship Enterprise has 
been. Further, the size and shape of the 
station must be instantly recognized, 



even at a great distance, and, when 
seen close up, the detailing must reveal 
a bizarre alien architecture that's at 
once fascinating and strange. 

The Cardassians are a powerful mil- 
itaristic race of intergalactic Nazis first 
seen on Star Trek: The Next Generation. 
The image they call to mind is of a so- 
phisticated Spartan race; arrogant, in- 
telligent, and cruel, for whom beauty on- 
ly exists in strength. Their armorlike cos- 
tumes (designed by Robert Blackman) 
suggest that like crustaceans, their skel- 
etal structure is on the outside. And 
their grotesque facial characteristics (de- 
signed by Michael Westmore) suggest 
aggressive personalities that abhor weak- 
ness and are quick to anger. 

Except for these wardrobe and make- 
up notes, the design team had little in- 
formation about Cardassians in general 
or what a starbase of their design 
might look like. We had a blank sheet 
of paper; three large, empty sound stag- 
es; and three months before set con- 
struction was slated to begin. 

It was nearly two months before 
Rick Sternbach, senior illustrator, Mi- 
chael Okuda, scenic-art supervisor 
(both resident experts on Star Trek 
lore) and I came up with a practical and 
aesthetically pleasing shape for the sta- 
tion. During that time, DS9 was alternate- 
ly a "North Sea oil rig" in space; a 1 ,000- 
year-old rust-bucket mining colony 
built by an unknown alien race; and a 
haphazardly built collection of diverse 
structural elements which just "grew" 
like Sargasso Sea space debris. We did 
sketches, computer drawings, and mod- 
els of each idea, but only got on the 
right track after the producers decided 
that what was really needed was the 
most futuristic, technologically ad- 
vanced alien structure we could imag- 
ine. Finally, a sleek, blue-gray titanium 
and dull-gold kevralite starbase began 
to take shape — an enormous structure 
which defined a large mass but in fact 
contained very little internal volume. In 
defining this structure, a Cardassian de- 
sign criteria began to evolve, a criteria 
which, once it was invented, began to 
drive the designs firmly in a seemingly 
correct and innovative direction. 

The Cardassians, we discovered, 
like orderliness in all things, and they 
prefer things in sets of three. So DS9 
has three horizontal concentric rings, 
one inside the other, as major structur- 
al components. And three connector tun- 
nels (spokes) join the three major rings 
to each other. Three vertical docking py- 
lons sit on the outer ring, and three ver- 
tical weapons towers sit on the middle 
ring. The Cardassian mind prefers bal- 
ance to symmetry, ellipses to circles, an- 
gles to straight lines, and hard metallic 

PAGE 86 




The Cancer War: 
stories from the front 

BY LINDA MURRAY 

Ultimately the battle will be won 

on the cellular level — the tiny microscopic 

world of tumors and T cells 

The setting is a small, sterile room at the National 
Cancer Institute where two figures — a 30-year-old 
woman dying of melanoma cancer, and surgeon Steven 
Rosenberg, one of the government's top cancer 
researchers— participate in a strange ritual. This is an 
historic experiment— as controversial as it is pioneering. 

Rosenberg pulls back the plunger on the syringe. 
Then, he injects it into the woman's thigh where the 
lymph system can recognize It Only weeks before, 
Rosenberg had removed a section of the woman's 
tumor. Into its cells he inserted the gene for the hormone 
tumor-necrosis factor (TNF), a natural killer of cancer 
cells. Then the concoction was nurtured in the test tube 
where it became a veritable TNF factory, churning out 
100 times the deadly substance. When injected back 
into the terminally ill patient, the lethal combination is 
designed to immunize the patient and beat the tumor 
back into regression, 

"The ability to genetically modify human cells and 
give ihem properties that these cells have never had 
before provides an opportunity to design treatment 

PHOTOGRAPHS BY MIKE MITCHELL 




Cancer's elite commandos: Ira Paston, Steve Rosenberg, and Drew Pardoll. 



approaches that previously would 
have been Impossible," says a hopeful 



At leasi that's the theory. Could 
Rosenberg's technique be the elusive 
magic inoculation that scientists have 
spent decades searching for? A way 
of immunizing a patient against his or 
her own tumor? Only Rosenberg 
himself knows if his technique works. 
He will not discuss the outcome even 



It could be for very good reason. 
Some .investigators question whether 
the fledgling gene therapy was ready 
for human experiments. It would be 
reasonable to prove that immunization 
could cure an existing cancer in 
animals before testing on patients. 
And there are those who doubt it 
works. "Tumor-necrosis factor does 
not in and of itself add anything," says 
leading researcher Drew Pardoll, of 



Philip Leder of Harvard University 
School of Medicine, who is a pioneer 
of this approach. "It's deliberately run 
in this way. The publicity didn't come 
after the experiment was a success. It 
came at the beginning because it 
might be quite uninteresting when it's 
all finished." 

Weicome to the War on Cancer, 
circa 1993. When it was declared with 
great gusto with the National Cancer 



Cancer Lexicon 

Antibody: A natural substance produced by certain 
white, blood pells that recognizes foreign invaders in the 
body — with the frequent exception of cancer— and seeks 
them out to destroy, 

Antigens; Unique protein markers for each type of 
cancer, which are intended to alert the killer T cells to 
search and destroy tumor cells. 

B-cell lymphoma: Cancer of the white blood oelis that 
normally produces disease-fighting antibodies, 

Bispecific antibody: An antibody with two binding sites: 
One attaches to the tumor cell, and the other binds to a 
trigger molecule or killer T cell, bringing the two together 
for destruction of the cancer cell. 

Cancer: A word that refers to approximately 150 
diseases that exhibit two characteristics: uncontrolled 
growth of cells, and the ability to invade and damage 
normal tissues, either locally or at. distant sites in the body. 

Cancer immunology: A field of scientific study t 
the premise that the body's immune system can be 
mobilized against cancer: 

Cancer-suppressing genes: Also called antioncogenes 
and tumor-suppressing genes, they are inactivated when 
cancer is expressed and. can no longer produce a normal 
protein that suppresses cancer. 

Chemopre vent ion: The process of preventing cancer 
occurrence with anticancer compounds found in foods 
and plants. 

D-limonene: A compound contained in orange-peel oil 
that has dramatic power to prevent and banish breast 
cancer in animals and may guard againsl skin cancer in 
.humans. 

QNA: The molecular blueprint of heredity. 

Genetic engineering: The means to artificially replicate 
human : proteins to allow for the efficient production of 
natural immunological substances in pure form, which 
provide the foundation for today's most promising form of 
immunotherapy 

Hybridoma: The product of the fusion of antibodies to 
cancer cells to make positive use of the cancer cells' 
unique ability to proliferate rapidly. 

immunotherapy: A new approach to treating cancer 
based on mobilizing the body's own immune system. '■ 



Interieukins: Substances in the immune system capable 
of activating the body's own white blood cells to destroy 
invading organisms. 

Isoprenes: Cancer-promoting substances manufac- 
tured by. tumors when they attach themselves to proteins 
and which direct them where, to locate within the cell. 

Killer T ceiis: Also called cytotoxic T cells; natural killer 
cells that need a signal to multiply during the immune 
response and attack cancer cells, 

Lymphokines: Specialized white blood cells that 
normally produce disease-fighting antibodies. 

Lymphoma: Cancer of the lymph system. 

Lymph system: A circulating system that contains the 
white blood ceils of the immune system. . 

Melanoma: A cancer that arises from darkly pigmented 
cells; the most serious form of skin cancer and the 
fastest- growing cancer in the world. 

The spreading of cancer from one site to" ' 
another. in which small clumps of cancer cells dislodge 
and migrate to distant sites, invading the circulatory 
system of the blood or lymph; 

Monoclonal, antibody: Mono for "one" and clone for 
"iii'K:: < : \ cells"; Ncihly selective; biological molecules that 
attach to specific cells and proteins in the body and 
which can be targeted to specific cancer antigens. 

Oncogene: A gene that induces the cell in which it is_ 
located to produce unusually large amounts of one of its 
normal proteins or to manufacture an altered form of that 
protein. This is the first step: in the genesis of cancer. 

Phage: A virus that infects bacteria but not humans. 

Repertoire cloning: A novel method of harvesting 
specific antibodies to use in anticancer therapies. 

Transforming Growth Factor-alpha (TGFa); A 
cell-stimulating hormone. 

Tumor-necrosis factor (TNF): A hormone that is a 
natural killer of cancer cells. 

Tumor- rejecting antigen: The protein in the immune 
system responsible for rejecting cancer. 

Vaccines: Solutions still in the experimental stage that 
are intended to prevent recurrences of previously treated 
cancers but not to prevent the development of cancer in : 
the first place. 



though through press releases he and 
NCI encouraged the media hoopla 
that accompanied the announcement 
of his experiments. "The results need 
to be published first in the scientific 
literature," he says, a process that 
could easily take a year. In the 
meantime, Rosenberg is not talking to 
the press, not confiding his secret 
hopes, fears, and inner struggles. 

52 OMNI 



Johns Hopkins University. In his own 
animal experiments, Pardoll found that 
TNF was ineffective. 

Other researchers are concerned 
about the enormous publicity that has 
surrounded Rosenberg's experiments 
because they fear it will raise false 
hopes in desperate patients. "It's a 
very-high-profile research activity that 
Steve Rosenberg is running," says 



Act, expectations ran high. Yet today, 
22 years later, we still don't know what 
causes cancer or how to prevent it. 

Melanoma — the most serious form 
of skin cancer and the fastest-growing 
cancer in the world — is increasing at 
such a rapid rate that it is expected to 
become as common as breast cancer 
by the year 2000: An estimated 32,000 
Americans were diagnosed during 



1992 alone. ThG death rate from mela- 
noma is increasing at about 4 percent 
a year, with at least a 93-percent in- 
crease over the past ten years. Part of 
the reason for the astronomical increase 
may be the depletion of the protective 
ozone layer that will allow bright 
beams of unfiltered DNA-shriveling ul- 
traviolet rays to seep into our atmos- 
phere. 

Statistics aside, cancer is simply not 
a national health priority. In fact, the gov- 
ernment allocates more money to fight 
AIDS. Yet cancer killed half a million 
Americans last year — nearly 20 times 
more than the 29,850 lives claimed by 
AIDS in 1991. Without major advances 
in cancer prevention, one out of every 
three Americans now alive will develop 
a malignancy. The most common and 
deadly types among Americans are 
lung, colon and rectum, breast, and pros- 
tate — in that order. 

These stark realities have lead angry 
cancer activists to form groups such as 
CAN ACT (Cancer Patients Action Alli- 
ance), a patient advocacy organization 
based on the contention that govern- 
ment regulations are depriving patients 
of potentially life-saving treatments. 

Clearly, the most fertile field for sig- 
nificant advances against cancer is im- 
munology — an area that is as tantaliz- 
ing as it is elusive. Where cancer is con- 
cerned, the behavior of the immune 
system is a conundrum. Sometimes it 
performs well Cancer cells are pro- 
duced regularly in the body but elimi- 
nated before they spread or form a tu- 
mor. Cancer only has an opportunity to 
take hold when something in the im- 
mune system goes awry. But the sys- 
tem is such a mystery that researchers 
still don't understand how it suppress- 
es cancer, let alone why it often re- 
neges on its duty. 

Immunology is the cutting edge of 
cancer research, the no-man's land 
where daredevils like Steve Rosenberg 
do not fear to tread. These scientists are 
engaged in a race against each other 
where they sometimes take shortcuts to 
try to arrive first at decoding the mes- 
sage of the bizarre proliferation of 
cells. At stake is no less than a guar- 
anteed Nobel Prize as well as immor- 
tality in the history of medicine. 

Dedicated to this end is a core 
group of international researchers — 
they all know each other — who period- 
ically announce major breakthroughs. 
One is working on a way to pump up 
our normal antibodies so they will take 
note of cancer cells (they often don't rec- 
ognize them) and fight off these inter- 
lopers. Another has concocted a chem- 
ical call-to-arms to rouse normally lazy 
T cells to hunt down tumor, markers 



throughout the body. In the United 
States, a scientist has worked out a way 
to throw a kind of molecular monkey 
wrench into the manic cell-growth 
works that characterize cancer — to dis- 
rupt the cancer-development process. 
This is where the war on cancer re- 
ally takes place — in a tiny microscopic 
world of tumor cells, killer'T cells, anti- 
bodies, genes, and molecules. Ultimate- 
ly, the battle is fought and won or lost 
on the cellular level. 

ATTACK TRAINING T CELLS 

Even as Rosenberg was promoting his 
gene-therapy experiments, Drew Par- 
doll was three weeks away from pub- 
lishing a crucial missing link of animal 
research in the prestigious journal Sci- 
ence. Working together with a team of 
researchers at Johns Hopkins, he was 
able to rid mice of their kidney cancer 
by using a new approach that may en- 
able interleukins — the much-heralded 
immune-system boosters — to live up to 
their predicted performance. 

Pardoll took tumor cells cultured 
from an early-stage mouse-kidney can- 
cer and genetically engineered them to 
secrete large doses of a natural cell- 
activating chemical called interleukin 4 
(IL-4). Then the team inserted the 
t makes IL-4 directly into the 



tumor-cell nucleus to avoid the toxic 
side effects that occur when interleukin 
is injected into the bloodstream. "We 
chose four or five different tumors and 
ten to fifteen combinations of lympho- 
kines — substances very much like inter- 
leukins," Pardoll says. "It's too early to 
know the most effective mixture and 
amounts." According to Pardoll, inter- 
leukins have failed to live up to their 
promise. "All these years, they have 
been used the wrong way," he says. 

Can Pardoll translate his animal ex- 
periments to humans? "There's no the- 
oretical reason why not," he says. "It's 
well established that the mouse immune 
system is virtually identical to the hu- 
man. It's less, clear how closely mouse 
tumors mimic human ones." With a 
team of investigators from Johns 
Hopkins, the Whitehead Institute, and 
Somatrix Corporation, Pardoll plans to 
begin treating patients as soon as com- 
mittees from the National Institutes of 
Health and the Food and Drug Adminis- 
tration approve the protocols. "We stud- 
ied the immune response from blood 
samples so we could learn the most 
about what happens with these thera- 
pies," he says. 

The innovative treatment empowers 
the tumor cell to produce interleukins 
that "attack train" cytotoxic T cells so 




that they can recognize tumor markers 
called antigens — pieces of the foreign 
invader displayed on the surface of the 
tumor cells. Once "switched on," the T 
cells are so discriminating that they can 
distinguish between normal and tumor 
cells even when the difference is only 
one amino acid. These powerhouses cir- 
culate swiftly throughout the blood- 
stream, searching and destroying even 
distant tumor cells. 

This is critical. When cancer cells pro- 
liferate, small clumps often dislodge 
and migrate to distant sites. This proc- 
ess is called metastasis. It accounts for 
one of cancer's most insidious charac- 
teristics — even destruction cf the tumot 
itself does not guarantee there aren't oth- 
er silent cells secretly multiplying in oth- 
er parts of the body. Therefore, any ef- 
fective "cure" as opposed to a treat- 
ment must seek out, recognize, and 
destroy all cancer cells wherever they 
may be lurking in the body. At the 
same time, the toxin should not dam- 
age any healthy cells that may be lo- 
cated almost on top of the diseased 
ones. This is a tall order. It's something 
that standard radiation and chemother- 
apy have not been able to deliver. 

THE FIRST ALL-HUMAN MONOCLO- 
NAL ANTIBODY 

High on the cliffs of La Jolla, California, 
at the Scripps Clinic, Mats Persson is 
getting a booster shot of tetanus — not 
because he stepped on a rusty nail, but 
because he is the pivotal point in an in- 
novative experiment to produce the 
first all-human monoclonal antibody — 
actually thousands of antibodies mass- 
produced and targeted to one specific 
cancer antigen, 

"Antibodies probably don't play a 
role naturally in fighting cancer," says 
Dennis R. Burton, who directed the ex- 
periment. "The basis of the antibody re- 
sponse is a reaction against something 
foreign in size, shape, and behavior. 
Cancer cells are so similar to normal 
ones that it's hard to find anybodies 
that can distinguish them. Moreover, un- 
til now, we haven't been able to make 
human antibodies in significant enough 
amounts to have a therapeutic effect." 

But antibodies can be transformed in- 
to something rich and strange through 
the technology of bioengineering. By in- 
oculating mice with foreign blood 
cells, it's possible to induce the animals' 
immune systems to speed up the manu- 
facture of anybodies specific to the for- 
eign invaders. These cells can then be 
fused with cancer cells to harness 
their capacity to grow and divide indef- 
initely. Called a hybridoma, the product 
of the fused cells churns out limitless 
amounts of an antibody specific to a par- 
56 OMNI 



ticular cancer antigen. 

Known as a monoclonal antibody 
(mono for "one," and clone for "line of 
cells"), like guided missiles they home 
in on one type of target. Once within strik- 
ing distance, these monomaniacal pred- 
ators activate natural killer cells or a for- 
eign toxin. Both strategies are aimed at 
destroying diseased cells. 

In the 1970s, monoclonal antibodies 
were hailed as the "magic bullets" of 
cancer therapy as well as other diseas- 
es. In fact, the discovery of monoclo- 
nals in 1975 was awarded a Nobel 
Prize. Monoclonals, it was anticipated, 
would be used to diagnose, treat, and 
hopefully cure disease. 

But in practical application, they 
proved disappointing. A major draw- 
back was the inevitable human immune 
system rejection of the mouse monoclo- 
nals. Sooner or later, they would be 
fought off as invaders. Willi Ihei; Ihera- 



6The 

most fertile field for 

significant 

advances against cancer is 

.immunology — 

an area that is as 

tantalizing 
as it is elusive. 9 



peu'.i'c powers so compromiser! these 
monoclonals quickly fell into disrepute. 

During the past few years, research- 
ers at a number of laboratories, includ- 
ing Scripps Clinic and the National Can- 
cer Institute, have been using sophisti- 
cated bioengineering techniques io 
reshape parts of animal antibodies so 
they are more like human antibodies. 
The new versions proved less provoc- 
ative, but clearly, the most effective mon- 
oclonals have to be made from human 
antibodies. 

It was precisely this challenge that 
spurred Burton and his colleagues to de- 
velop the first all-human version by ge- 
netic engineering. A provocateur was 
required, and tetanus, one of the dead- 
liesl poisons known to man, was select- 
ed. If the experiment proved success- 
ful, it would lead to a vaccine for the 
disease that kills nearly three-quarters 
of a million children throughout the 
world. Moreover, it would point the way 
toward a cancer therapy. 

When Persson was injected with the 
tetanus toxin, his body's immune sys- 



tem was jolted into amassing an army 
of toxin-targeting antibodies. A week lat- 
er, with his lockjaw immunity at a new 
peak, Persson donated a dollop of an- 
tibody-making white blood cells for sci- 
ence, The Scripps tearp extracted 
their DNA, isolated tfie genes that 
code for tetanus antibodies, and ampli- 
fied them thousands of times. 

These genes were then planted into 
a phage, a virus that infects germs, not 
humans. Finally, the mixture of antibody 
and virus genes was transplanted into 
a workhorse-cloning bacteria that mis- 
takes each gene for one of its own, turn- 
ing itself into a mass-production anti- 
body factory. And that's how the 
human monoclonal antibodies in bac- 
teria were born. 

This revolutionary way of collecting 
antibodies has been dubbed "reper- 
toire cloning" or the library approach. 
"Let's say a human being makes a hun- 
dred million antibodies coded by a hun- 
dred million genes," Burton says. "Reper- 
toire cloning allows us to remove the anti- 
body genes from small blood samples 
and insert them into bacterial cells 
where they proliferate. Each cell be- 
comes a factory for making a different 
antibody, These stacks of antibodies 
are called a library. So we have a library 
of a hundred million different bacteria, 
each making a differenl antibody. We 
can go into the .library and select Ihe 
very specific antibody we want by pre- 
senting Ihe biological equivalent of a 
computerized entry from the card cat- 
alog (actually a foreign entity). Then we 
zero in on the particular antibody we 
want and we just pick it off the shelf." 

Now the human monoclonal needs to 
be adapted to cancer. It will be able to 
conduct search-and-destroy missions 
throughout the body without being de- 
tected by the ever-vigilant immune sys- 
tem. The right antibody can very spe- 
cifically target cancer cells for destruc- 
tion while sparing healthy tissue- -some- 
thing that chemotherapy and radiation 
do not do at all well. 

THE DOUBLE-WHAMMY BISPECIFIC 
ANTIBODY 

A new form of immunotherapy with an 
ingenious "double-whammy" antibody 
packs twice the power of the monoclo- 
nal antibody because it has two bind- 
ing sites — one that attaches to the tu- 
mor cell and another that binds to a trig- 
ger molecule or cytotoxic cell. The 
double-whammy works like a Venus fly- 
trap that has ensnared two sworn ene- 
mies. It seals the fate of the tumor cell 
quite literally by bringing target and 
predator into deadly contact. 

"The bispecific antibody binds to a 
particular molecule ;hat nhiates the kill- 



inc." says Michael W. Fanger, chairman 
of microbiology at Dartmouth Medical 
School and cofounder of Medarex, 
which is developing bispecific antibod- 
es- "It forces all tumor cells to attach 
to cytotoxic killer cells. Then it goes one 
step further by broadcasting the alert 
to all killer cells throughout the body to 
fay to rest all tumor cells wherever they 
may be located." 

The double-whammy has proved its 
effectiveness already in brain cancer. 
Among 20 patients with malignant tu- 
mors treated in Japan, 76 percent are 
tumor-free two years after bispecific an- 
tibodies were injected into their brains. 
Only 33 percent who received activat- 
ed cells without the antibody were tu- 
mor-free after the same period of time. 

In England and Europe, bispecific an- 
tibodies have been used against lym- 
phomas and ovarian cancers with a few 
remissions. "Bispecific antibodies will 
be used as an adjunct after standard 
treatment with surgery, chemotherapy, 
or radiation," says Fanger. "They 
come into play when patients go into re- 
mission. In many, the use of bispecific 
antibodies may be enough to complete- 
ly cure the patient. There's a good 
shot that we will be able to improve the 
cure rate Irom thirty percent to fifty per- 
cent. Bispecific antibodies are chang- 
ing the course of cancer." 

TOXIN-TOTING TORPEDOES 

Getting drugs to cancers without injur- 
ing healthy, normal cells has long 
been a problem and a challenge. But 
a novel system for firing magic bullets 
al diseased cells is now in its first hu- 
man trial. This toxin-toting torpedo com- 
bines genetically engineered payloads 
with a precision guidance system so it 
can surgically strike the bulls-eye with 
little or no, collateral damage. 

The system, currently being studied 
for possible side effecls in nine patients 
with end-stage bladder cancer, con- 
sists of a potent bacteria! toxin coupled 
to a cell-stimulating hormone called 
Transforming Growth Factor-alpha 
(TGFa). Surfaces of many kinds of tu- 
mor cells are studded with growth- 
factor receptors like dish antennas 
tuned to the wavelength of the incom- 
ing toxin/growth-factor package. 

"If a cell has a marker, it's possible 
to design a toxin-carrying package spe- 
cific for those cells," says Ira Pastan, 
chief of the Laboratory of Molecular Bi- 
ology at NCI. In mice, this cell-killing fu- 
sion protein has been shown to be ac- 
iive against brain, prostate, and epider- 
moid cancers. 

"We start with a toxin that even in low 
doses is a powerful cell-killing agent," 
explains Pastan. "It binds to the cell sur- 



face, and then it enters and destroys 
the cell by blocking its ability to make 
protein — at which point the cell simply 
talis apart and dies." 

Are the toxin-toting torpedoes a treat- 
ment or cure? "Hopefully, a cure," 
says Pastan. "Right now, we're inter- 
ested in their potential in solid tumors 
as well as lymphomas and leukemias."- 

P1STOL-PACKING NATURAL CANCER- 
FIGHTING FOODS 

Chemoprevention— the effort lo identi- 
fy anticancer chemicals in food — is a 
booming area of cancer research. The 
National Cancer Institute currently has 
22 chemopreventive agents in 41 hu- 
man trials, another 250 in preclinical stud- 
ies, and at least 1,000 more under eval- 
uation. These include garlic, which pre- 
vents 80 percent of colon-cancer tu- 
mors in rats and reduces lung cancer 
in mice; cauliflower, Brussels sprouts. 



6Any 

effective "cure" as opposed 

to a 

treatment must seek out, 

recognize, 

and destroy all cancer cells 

wherever 

they may be lurking. 9 



and cabbage, wh'ch also prevented SO 
percent of colon tumors in mice; soy 
sauce, which reduces the risk of eso- 
phageal cancer in mice; soybean prod- 
ucts, which are linked "with the reduc- 
tion of several types of cancer in Japan; 
watercress; and the much-maligned 
broccoli (sulforaphane), which may con- 
tain the most powerful anticancer com- 
pound ever detected. 

"Chemoprevention could result in a 
fifty-percent reduction in cancer inci- 
dence in the years to come," predicts 
Winfred F. Malone of the Chemopre- 
vention Branch of the National Cancer 
Institute. Much of this research is at the 
animal stage. One substance, orange- 
peel oil, is in the planning stages for hu- 
man trials. Orange-peel oil contains D- 
llmonene, a substance that has dramat- 
ic power to prevent and banish breast 
cancer in animals and may guard 
against skin cancer. By feeding D-lim- 
onene to laboratory rats with breast can- 
cer, the development of tumors was re- 
duced sixfold, and more than 80 per- 
cent were eradicated! 



"There's no reason to believe this 
would not be effective against other 
kinds of cancer," says researcher Mi- 
chael N. Gould, professor of human on- 
cology at the University of Wisconsin. 

How does chemoprevention actual- 
ly work? In the case of orange-peel oil 
and breast cancer, the hypothesis is 
that D-limonene disrupts the cancer 
cells' ability to modify certain proteins, 
a process crucial to cancer-cell 
growth. The tumors manufacture sub- 
stances called isoprenes that attach 
themselves to certain proteins and 
then direct them where to locate within 
the cell. One isoprene directs a group 
of proteins to the cell membrane, a 
process D-limonene inhibits'. 

"Now we're trying to figure out 
which one is the key protein," says 
Gould. "If we can inhibit the kingpin, tu- 
mors may regress completely in an 
even larger percentage of animals." 

Orange-peel oil from a bitter Mediter- 
ranean orange, not available in the 
United States, may also protect people 
with fair skin from getting skin cancer. 
In a test in England, fair-skinned peo- 
ple were given either a standard sun- 
screen or a sunscreen fortified with the 
orange-peel-oil compound. Those who 
used the fortified sunscreen had one- 
third to one-half the DNA damage as 
those who used standard lotion. It 
seems that the chemical extract some- 
how changes the way in which the skin 
responds to sun exposure. 

Does this mean that eating the rind 
of oranges will project you toiti cancer 9 
Theoretically, but Gould points out it 
would be necessary to eat "a whole 
truckload of oranges" every day to 
achieve the therapeutic effect. Even if 
you could, the consumption of that 
many would cause severe gastrointes- 
tinal problems. Better to wait for further 
lostinc. and the oral-mod cation version 
which is still several years away — if all 
goes well. 

THE ONGOING BATTLE 
In the not-too- distant future, it may be 
possible to cure — not simply treat — 
career patients with a simple injection. 
Then, a diagnosis of melanoma would 
not carry the terminal sentence it does 
today. A patient would simply go to his 
or her physician, receive a series of in- 
jections, and the tumors would almost 
magically vanish. 

Already, something very similar has 
happened at Stanford University in Cal- 
ifornia where nine B-cell lymphoma pa- 
tients have been treated over six 
months with injections of a therapeutic 
vaccine — custom-made from each pa- 
tient's own cancer. (B-cell lymphoma is 
cancer of the white blood cells in the 



p" v i; -v|f The American Cancer Society .doesn't 
,;" ( ^% '■{■ want you to read this story— ''especially it 
-.:,., :;• .■:. you're a cancer patient. Because you're as- 
sumed to be gullible, desperate, and possibly reckless, 
you might run off and try an "unproven treatment,' 1 - 
which tends to mean any remedy ■ originating outside 
thecancer establishment's aegis. For years, the Soci- : 
ety has maintained a quack list — discreetly called the, 
.List of Unproven-Therapies— for the purpose of warn- ' 
ing you away from, snake-oil salesmen and their elix- 
irs. "These purveyors of unproven methods often con- 

' vert a hopeful clinical situation into one of hopeless- 
ness and despair by delaying adequate therapy or 
avoiding qualified consultations that could be of bene- 
fit,^ the ACS ex-,.. ; 
plains in a booklet 
for cancer patients. 
The National 
Cancer Institute 
(NCI) along with 
its public-relations 
arm, the Ameri- 
can Cancer Socie- 
ty, is fond of mak- 
ing' natural reme- 
dies sound ludi- 
crous, as if they 
were vestjges of a 
prescient if ic, medi- 
eval world-view. 
But before you dis- 
count milk thistle' 
or shiitake must 
.rooms as medi- 

. cihes, consider 
that two common 
anticancer drugs, 
vincristine arid vin- 
blastine, were de- 
veloped when Eli 
Lilly 'researchers 
started testing folk 
medicines and dis- 



terms of actually curing cancer, -chemotherapy seems' - 
to have, reached a dead. end. Interferon, the great 
hope. of/the 1980s, dklnot pan out. Today there are'"' 
bold new immunotherapies in theworks, the results^ of' 
Which may be revealed in the next.deeade or two.. But 
that' may, be small comfort to people'whose life ©xpe'c-:' 
fancy is measured in months, . - ; , : , ,'■'■. ■ ■ 
The-following are some alternative treatments: that 
.srjpw promise. While no one could reasonably ■claim 
thatariy of them is a cure; we have tried to select rem- 
edies with low toxicity 'and minimal side effects,-,, In - 
some cases, clinical statistics are slim or -lacking, giv- 
en that it's difficult to perform, proper controlled experi- 
ments in an 'alternative-clinic setting, where patients. 
Ji^jij;.-^'' ■-■ ...,_..i1mii suffer from many 



UNCONVENTIONAL 

CANCER 

T It E ATM E N "P 



IF YOU HAD HODGKIN'S 

DISEASE.YOU'D PROBABLY BE 

FOOIISH TO CO OFF AND BATHE IN 

%0J LOURDES HOLY WATER INSTEAD OF 

'CONSULTING AN ONCOLOGIS'T.BUT 

WHAT IF YOU HAD PANCREATIC 

CANCER? MODERN MEDICINE ',H AS 

NOTHING TO OFFER YOUeTO SAVE 

YOUR LiFE. AND YET IT DOES ! Nof 

THINK YOU SHOULD TRY AN UN 




PROVEN THERAPY.EVEN VITAMIN C. "Sglf than anyone real- 



^2|§k i 29 ^. ' n the mean- 



i 






different types of 
cancer and may 
be treated with as 
many as 30 differ- 
ent substances si-. ' 
multaneousiy. (Qn 
the other hand; - 
bear in mind that 
mainstrearri can- 
cer doctors often ■ 
administer toxj.c-' 
chemotherapy in . 
cases where, the 
statistics show ab- 
solutely no bene- 
fit.] It's possible 
that some of the 
therapies listed 
■below will turn ou,t ■ 
to be worthless. 
upon further inves- 
tigation; ■ others., 
may turn out to be 
effective 



Covered that the Madagascar periwinkle killed cancer 
cells. Today, leading cancer centers are widely enthu- 
siastic about taxo'l, a product of the Pacific yew tree. 

The language of its List of Unproven Therapies con- 
veys the distinct impression that the Cancer Society has 
carefully tested each treatment before Writing it off as 
worthless. But is that the case? Ralph '.W. Moss, au- 
thor of The Cancer Industry, points to 28 out of 63 un- 
proven treatments on which Eno- investigation at ail was 
carried out by the ACS or any other agency before the 
method was condemned," In seven cases, an investi- 
gation apparently yielded positive results. 

Even mainstream researchers now admit that (lie-. 
War on Cancer, declared by President Nixon in 1971", 
has been lost— or at least mired — in the trenches; In 



BY JUDITH HOOPER 
with the 



^ time, whetner 
you're dealing 
instream or alternative medicine, its always 
a good idea to thoroughly investigate any treatment be- 
fore embarking on it. 

CARNlVORA. It sounds like something dreamt up n a 
grade-D science-fiction movie. While watching inc Ve- 
nus flytrap plants in his wife's window boxes digest p"0- 
teip.tissuessuch as flies, insects, and small worms Ger- 
man physician Helmut Keller got his brainstorm .re- 
pressed with the plant's voracity, he decided to test its 
pressed juices In animal and-in vitro studies. "Cit -.or-) 
proved to be extremelyVnontoxic and nonmutagervc." 
Keller asserts, and its effects included cytostasis ft-ie 
destruction of Cancer cells), immune enhancement, m 
totic (cancer-eel! division) irh a Hon. v ruadal (virus 
killing) effects, and pain relinl Then alone came ho- 



man patients. 

Since 1981, Carnivora, an extract of 
the meat-eating Venus flytrap plant (Di- 
onaea muscipuia), has been used on 
over 2,000 patients, allegedly including 
former president Ronald Reagan. In Kel- 
ler's native Germany, it's reportedly show- 
ing promise in the treatment of cancer, 
AIDS, and other immune-compromised 
conditions. In an initial clinical study of 
210 dying patients with a variety of can- 
cers, all of whom had undergone un- 
successful chemotherapy or radiation, 
40-percent were stabilized by Carnivora 
treatment and 16 percent went into re- 
mission. Carnivora is administered by 
intramuscular injection or in the form of 
drops for oral and inhalation use, Dos- 
age and timing is prescribed on the ba- 
sis of an extensive immune profile. 

A ccess: Carnivora-Forschungs-Gmbh, 
Postfach 8, Lobensteiner Strasse 3, D- 
8646 Nordhalben, Germany; phone: 
011-49-9267-1662, 

HYDRAZINE SULFATE. Developed in 
1968 by Dr, Joseph Gold of the Syra- 
cuse Cancer Research Institute in Syra- 
cuse, New York, hydrazine sulfate is a 
prominent example of a new breed of 
anticancer agents: It works not by kill- 
ing cancer cells with poison, but by in- 
terrupting the insidious process where- 
by a cancer nourishes itself at the ex- 
pense of the host body To grow, ma- 
lignant tumors use glucose as their fuel, 
but they metabolize it incompletely and 
dump the waste product, lactic acid, in- 
to the bloodstream. The body requires 
ever increasing energy to reconvert the 
lactic acid into glucose, and the result 
is cachexia, the severe emaciation 
that is the hallmark of cancer. Hydrazine 
sulfate, a cheap and widely available 
industrial chemical, reportedly stops 
this vicious cycle by blocking a key liv- 
er enzyme needed to convert lactic ac- 
id into glucose. By depriving cancer 
cells of their food, hydrazine sulfate has 
Ihe happy "side effect" of killing them. 

The relationship between hydrazine 
sulfate and the cancer establishment 
has been a tempestuous one, oscillat- 
ing from wild enthusiasm to outright con- 
demnation. Early clinical studies yield- 
ed mixed results. Studies at Harbor- 
UCLA Medical Center in Torrance, 
California, however, showed promise, 
and ongoing studies with patients with 
less advanced disease may tell us 
more about hydrazine sulfate's virtues. 

Access; Contact Dr. Joseph Gold, 
Syracuse Cancer Research Institute, 
Syracuse, New York 13202, 
714-X is the brainchild of Gaston 
Naessens, a controversial French- 
born biologist with hard-to-verify cre- 
dentials who now resides in Quebec. In 
1989, he and his cancer therapy be- 
ad OMNI 



came a cause celebre in Sherbrooke, 
Quebec, 30 miles from the Vermont bor- 
der, when he was tried oh five counts — 
the most serious being "contributing to 
the death of a patient." The jury found 
him not guilty. 

The reasoning behind 714-X is a bit 
convoluted. Some years ago, Naes- 
sens, a reclusive genius type, invented 
a new microscope with extraordinary 
magnification and resolution powers. 
Peering into a newly revealed mi- 
croworid, he discerned in human 
blood, tiny, primitive life forms he bap- 
tized somatids (or "tiny bodies"). Cul- 
tured in vitro, they were found to be vir- 
tually indestructible, though not in them- 
selves sinister. Everybody has soma- 
tids, but when an organism is subjected 
to some form of trauma (radiation, chem- 
ical pollution) that weakens the immune 
system, the somatids go into a wild, un- 
controlled growth cycle, according to 



6The 
Cancer Society is fond of 

making 

natural remedies sound 

ludicrous, 

as if they were vestiges of a 

prescientific, 

medieval world-view.9 



Naessens, ultimately leading to cancer, 
AIDS, or other degenerative diseases. 
714-X, which basically consists of nitro- 
gen married to camphor, is supposed 
to shore up the immune system and re- 
store the somatids to a normal balance. 

This unorthodox treatment is not for 
the faint of heart, as it requires daily self- 
injections of the inguinal (groin) lymph 
nodes for a period of several months. 
As is often the case with alternative treat- 
ments, statistics are hard to pin down, 
but Maessensophiles claim that 714-X 
has saved hundreds of cancer patients 
and several dozen AIDS victims. 

Access.- Gaston Naessens, C.O.S.E., 
5270 Fontaine, Rock Forest, Quebec, 
Canada J1N 3B6; (819) 564-7883. 
MELATONIN. This little-understood hor- 
mone is produced by the brain's pin- 
eal gland. (Students of mysticism may 
note that this light-sensitive gland is the 
site of the vestigial "third eye." Perhaps 
ancient yogi adepts knew what they 
were doing when they concentrated 
their inward gaze here.) Besides regu- 
. lating the brain's circadian "clock," re- 



productive cycles, and other neuroen- 
docrine functions, melatonin apparent- 
ly boosts immunity — and steadily de- 
olii Kis ■■■■vith age. While longevity research- 
ers are probing melatonin's laniahzing 
antiaging and life-extending properties, 
other scientists concentrate on its anti- 
cancer potential. 

David Blask, M.D., Ph.D., of the Uni- 
versity of Arizona College of Medicine, 
was impressed by the hormone's abili- 
ty to inhibit several types of human tu- 
mors cultivated in lab dishes. Adminis- 
tered to several hundred rats with 
breast cancer, melatonin shrank their tu- 
mors substantially in half of the cases. 
In Holland, Dr. Michael Cohen has re- 
cently substituted melatonin for estro- 
gen in his radical new birth-control pill, 
B-Oval. And guess what? In tests on 
rats, B-Oval appeared to prevent 
breast cancer, presumably by suppress- 
ing estrogen. John M. Fontenont and 
Stephen A. Levine of the Allergy Re- 
search Group of San Leandro, Califor- 
nia, observe that melatonin- deficiency 
may be a "critical starting point" for a 
host of degenerative processes leading 
to cellular abnormality and cancer, and 
that melatonin's low toxicity makes it 
worth investigating. 

Access: Pineal-gland supplements, 
marketed as Stress Guard, are availa- 
ble, from Allergy Research Group, 400 
Preda Street, San Leandro, California 
94577; (800) 782-4274. 
SHARK OIL and SHARK CARTILAGE. 
Ever wonder why sharks rarely get can- 
cer? Well, the family of Jaws has at 
least two things going for it: shark-liver 
oil and shark cartilage. 

Shark-liver oil is one of the best nat- 
ural sources of alkoxyglycerols, natural 
alcohols that promote a generalized an- 
tibody response and shrink tumors, In 
a Dutch study, cervical-cancer patients 
pretreated with shark-liver oil before re- 
ceiving radiation treatment had far bet- 
ter survival rates than patients who did 
not receive this treatment. In many cas- 
es, the tumors shrank significantly be- 
fore radiation began, thereby rendering 
radiation more effective. 

And here's another cancer-preven- 
tion delicacy: shark-fin soup (or, if you 
prefer, shark-cartilage capsules). The 
cartilage in shark fin has the virtue of 
inhibiting angiogenesis, the develop- 
ment of tiny blood vessels, or capillar- 
ies, that lay the foundations for tumor 
growth and metastasis. According to 
studies at several Boston hospitals as- 
sociated with Harvard Medical School, 
tumors require angiogenesis to grow be- 
yond about two millimeters, and with- 
out new capillary networks in place, me- 
tastasis probably cannot occur. Shark 
cartilage, a thousand times richer in angi- 



ogenesis inhibitors than cartilage from 
calves, has been found to slow the 
growth of tumors in animals and hu- 
mans. In Japan, shark-fin soup has 
long been considered a life-extension 
tonic. Now some alternative physicians 
are incorporating cartilage capsules in- 
to cancer patients' programs. 

Access: Deep-sea shark-liver oil 
(squalene) capsules, called Mayumi, 
are distributed by Japan Health Prod- 
ucts, Pacoima, California 91331. Shark- 
cartilage capsules, called Cartilade, are 
available from Allergy Research 
Group, 400 Preda Street, San Leandro, 
California 94577; (800) 782-4274; or 
from Emerson Ecologies, 14 Newtown 
Road, Acton, Massachusetts 01720; 
(800) 654-4432. 

ESSIAC. Among purported cancer 
cures, Essiac has a certain irresistible 
mystique, in part because of its origins 
in an old Canadian Indian recipe. In 
1922, a Canadian nurse by the name 
of Rene Caisse took notice when a hos- 
pital patient suffering from breast can- 
cer was healed by an Ontario Indian. 
Caisse tracked down the formula for the 
herbal tea, made a few adjustments, re- 
named it Essiac (Caisse spelled back- 
wards), and used it to treat cancer pa- 
tients up until her death in 1978. Leg- 
end has it that thousands were healed, 
including many who had been written 
off as terminal. 

What is in Essiac? Basically, the rec- 
ipe calls for burdock, slippery elm, sor- 
rel, and turkey (Indian) rhubarb. In 
1966, Hungarian researchers discov- 
ered "considerable antitumor activity" 
in burdock, which also appears in the 
controversial south-of-the-border 
Hoxsey herbal formula. Japanese 
searchers found that burdock con^ 
tained a substance that reduced cell mu- 
tation. Turkey rhubarb, another herb in 
the formula, demonstrated antitumor ac- 
tivity in animal tests. Resperin Corpo- 
ration purchased the rights to Essiac 
from Caisse and reported that the re- 
sults-of nationwide testing with 350 phy- 
sicians turned up "extremely encourag- 
ing evidence" of tumor regression. 
Connoisseurs say that the Essiac formu- 
la must be exactly right to work and 
warn the buyer to beware of imitators. 

Access: Canadian physicians can go 
through legal channels to obtain Essi- 
ac. By contacting the Health Protection 
Branch, Food and Drug, in Ottawa, On- 
tario, Canada, they can make arrange- 
ments to buy the product from the Res- 
perin Corporation. Otherwise, Essiac 
can be ordered from St. Jude Interna- 
tional Clinic, Jimmy Keller, Administra- 
tor, 911 Television Street, Tijuana, Mex- 
ico; phone: 011-5266-84733. 
MISTLETOE (Helixor, Iscador). It was 



sacred to the ancient Druids, and for 
years, the European mistletoe {Viscum 
album) has 1 been a mainstay of the 
Lukas Klinik, in Arlesheim, Switzerland. 
Injected subcutaneously (and occasion- 
ally taken orally), mistletoe reportedly 
boosts the immune system and trans- 
forms cancer cells into normal cells. 
(Don't try this with American mistletoe; 
it doesn't have the same properties!) 

Publishing in respected medical jour- 
nals, several teams of German research- 
ers report that a Viscum album prepa- 
ration called Helixor significantly pro- 
longed the survival of patients with 
advanced metastatic colorectal cancer 
and other patients with secondary liver 
metastases — two categories of cancer 
that are notoriously resistant to treat- 
ment- (Among the liver metastases 
group, median one-year survival for Hel- 
ixor-treated patients was 40.3 percent 
compared with 6.6 percent for the un- 



6And here's 
another cancer-prevention 

delicacy: 

shark-fin soup — considered 

a life-extension 

tonic in Japan. Or if you 

prefer, try 

shark-cartilage capsules. 3 



treated controls.) According to a vari- 
ety of published in vitro, animal, and hu- 
man studies, mistletoe's intriguing pot- 
pourri of lectins, polysaccharides, and 
polypeptideskills cancer cells indirect- 
ly by stimulating a nonspecific immune 
reaction within the host organism. Un- 
like traditional chemotherapy, the sub- 
stance kills cancer cells without dam- 
aging healthy ones, according to the re- 
searchers. Maybe the Druids knew 
what they were doing. 

Be advised that Iscador still appears 
on the Society's black list. The ACS 
does concede, however, that several an- 
imal and in vitro studies of Iscador 
have revealed cytotoxic (cancer-cell- 
killing) and immune-enhancing effects. 

Access: Contact Helixor Heilmittel 
GmbH & Company, Hofgut Fischer- 
muhle, 7463 Rosenfeld 1 Germany; 
phone: 011-49-07428-2910 
GERMANIUM, is actually a rare chemi- 
cal element, atomic number 32, atom- 
ic weight 72.6, discovered by German 
■ chemist Clemens Winkler in 1886. In the 
1940s, a Japanese chemist tested 



many germanium compounds for bio- 
logical activity and came up with Ge- 
132, or bis-carboxyethyl germanium 
sesquioxide, a stable, water-soluble, 
nontoxic form of organic germanium. 

Germanium is said to perform many 
homeosiatic (normalizing) functions in 
the body. Many alternative physicians 
prescribe it for cancer patients because 
of its apparent ability to normalize the 
immune system. Tests on immune-sup- 
pressed animals (and uncontrolled stud- 
ies with human beings) suggest that ger- 
manium may increase the levels of 
gamma-interferon (an immune-system 
hormone), activate macrophage and nat- 
ural killer cells, stimulate B-cell activi- 
ty, and enhance resistance to viruses. 
Cautionary note: There have been a few 
reports linking long-term germanium 
use to kidney damage, 

Access: Contact Allergy Research 
Group, 400 Preda Street, San Leandro, 
California 94577; (800) 782-4274. 
PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES. Proteolytic, 
or protein-dissolving, enzymes are manu- 
factured by the pancreas for the pur- 
pose of breaking down animal proleins 
in the diet. Studies suggest that by break- 
ing down the walls of malignant cells, 
the enzymes render them vulnerable to 
the body's immune defenses. In any 
case, proteolytic enzymes are used lav- 
ishly by all the so-called metabolic can- 
cer therapies— such as the programs of 
Dr. Max Gerson and Dr. William Kelley — 
as a nontoxic chemotherapy, abetted 
by a good diet, massive doses of vita- 
mins, and regular "detoxification." 

In the form of a product called 
Wobe Mugos, proteolytic enzymes are 
a principal treatment at the Janker 
Klinik in Bonn, Germany, which has 
achieved an impressive cure rate by 
combining aggressive, short-term chem- 
otherapy and radiation with natural or 
experimental treatment. Administered 
orally or as an enema, Wobe Mugos is 
usually used in conjunction with mas- 
sive doses of an emulsified form of vi- 
tamin A, another anticancer agent. 

Access: Pancreatic enzymes, as well 
as plant enzymes, are available from vi- 
tamin and supplement companies. 
VITAMIN C. For years, the cancer es- 
tablishment has turned a deaf ear to No- 
bel laureate Dr. Linus Pauling when he 
tried to tell them that ascorbic acid 
does more than prevent sniffles. At a re- 
cent conference, however, NCI epide- 
miologist Dr. Gladys Block noted that 
of a total of 47 studies, 34 showed that 
vitamin C had a preventive effect on can- 
cers of the lung, larynx, oral cavity, 
esophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, 
pancreas, bladder, brain, endometrium, 
and breast. Its side effects are minimal. 

In early clinical trials in Scotland, be- 

CON I rNIJFD ON PAGE 89 61 









[11 



^ 



I 




i JlUrrl'ral * ■> 



( 



only three people in Recc 
3 of the Hole seems to *— 



■ ■ ■ ■■■' '■' n: .,i. ,' ''I ■ ■. 



5. that have torn off half a head. Eighty-thi 



. Another 11 percent live 



Tie horrors of war are difficult to face, even for a noncomnatant nurse. Hoi much banter when there are two battles — one on the field, aii one in jour heart? 



longer but never regain consciousness. 
That leaves us with 6 percent who 
eventually talk, although not to us. Af- 
ter we repair the flesh and boost the im- 
mune system, the Army sends heavily 
armored trucks to move them out of our 
heavily armored compound to some- 
where else. The Pentagon? We aren't 
told. Somewhere there are three sol- 
diers from Kichline's Riflemen, a field- 
grade officer under Lord Percy, and a 
shell-shocked corporal in homespun, all 
talking to the best minds the country- 
thinks it can find. 

This time I want to talk first. 

The soldier who has finally woken up 
is a grizzled veteran who came 
through dressed in breeches, boots, 
and light coat. It's summer on the oth- 
er side of the Hole: The Battle of Long 
Island was fought on August 27, 1776. 
Unlike most Arrivals, this one staggered 
through the Hole without his rifle or bay- 
■ onet, although he had a hunting knife, 
which was taken away from him. He'd 
received a head wound, most likely a 
glancing shell fragment, enough to 
cause concussion but, according to the 
brain scan, not permanent damage. 
When I burst into Recovery, he's sitting 
up, dazed, looking at the guards at the 
door holding their M-18s. 

"The General and Dr. Bechtel are on 
their way," I say to the guards, which is 
approximately true. I sent a soldier walk- 
ing across the compound to tell them. 
My phone seems to be malfunctioning. 
The soldier is walking very slowly. 

"General Putnam?" the new Arrival 
asks. His voice is less dazed than his 
face: a rough, deep voice with the pe- 
culiar twist on almost-British English 
that still sends a chill through me all 
these months after the Hole opened. 

"Were you with the Connecticut 
Third Regiment? Let me check your 
pulse, please, I'm a nurse." 

"A nurse!" That seems to finish the 
daze; he looks at my uniform, then my 
face. When the Hole first opened, 
there was wild talk of putting the medi- 
cal staff in Colonial dress — "To minimize 
the psychological shock." As if anything 
could minimize dying hooked to ma- 
chines you couldn't imagine in a place 
that didn't exist while being stuck with 
needles by people unborn for another 
two centuries. Cooler heads prevailed. 
I wear fatigues, my short hair limp 
against my head from a shower, my 
glasses thick over my eyes. 

"Yes, a nurse. This is a hospital. Let 
me have your wrist, please." 

He pulls his hand away. I grab his 
wrist and hold it firmly. Two Arrivals 
have attacked triage personnel and one 
attacked a Recovery guard; this soldier 
looks strong enough for both. But I 
64 OMNI 



served in the minor action in Kuwait and 
the major ones in Colombia. He lets me 
hold his wrist. His pulse is rapid but 
strong. 

"What is this place?" 

"I told you. A hospital." 

He leans forward and clutches my 
arm with his free hand while I'm reach- 
ing for the medscan equipment. "The 
battle — who won the battle?' 

They're often like this. They find them- 
selves in an alien, impossible, unimag- 
inable place, surrounded by guards 
with uniforms and weapons they don't 
recognize, and yet their first concern is 
not their personal fate but the battle 
they left behind. They ask again and 
again. They have to know what hap- 
pened. 

We aren't supposed to tell Arrivals any- 
thing not directly medical No hint that 
this is more than a few days into their 
future. That's official policy. Not until the 



4We're not 
supposed to tell Arrivals 

anything not 
directly medical. No hint 

that this is 

more than a tew days into 

their future. 

Those are my orders. 9 



Military Intelligence experts are finished 
with whatever they do, wherever they 
do it. Not until the Pentagon has as- 
sured itself that the soldier, the Hole it- 
self, is not some terrorist plot (whose, 
for Christ's sweet fucking sake?). Were 
"not qualified for this situation." (Who 
do they imagine is?) Those are my or- 
ders. 

But he hasn't asked for very much fu- 
ture: The Battle of Long Island was over 
in less than 24 hours. And I, of all peo- 
ple, am not capable of denying anyone 
the truth of his past. 

"The Colonists lost. Washington re- 
treated." 

"Ahhhhhhhhhhh . . . ." He lets it out 
like escaping gas. In Bogota, in the '95 
offensive, lethal gas wiped out 3,000 
men in an hour. I don't look directly at 
his face. 

"You were hit in the head," I say. "Not 
badly." 

He puts his hand to his head and fin- 
gers the bandage, but his eyes never 
leave mine. He has a strong, fierce 
face, with sunken black eyes, a 



hooked nose, broken teeth, and a 
beard coming in red, not gray. He 
could be anywhere from forty to sixty. 
It's not a modern face; today the Army 
would fix the teeth and shave the 
beard. 

"And the General? Put survived the 
battle?" 

"He did." 

"Ahhhhhhhh .... And the war? 
How goes the war?' 

I have said far too much already. The 
soldier sits straight on his bed, his 
fierce eyes blazing. Behind us I hear 
the door open and the guards snap in- 
to salute. In those Colonial eyes is a 
need to know that has nothing in it of 
weakness. It isn't a plea, or a beseech- 
ing. It's a demand for a right, as we to- 
day might demand a search warrant, or 
a lawyer, or a trial by jury — all things 
whose existence once depended on 
what this soldier wants to know. He 
stares at me and I feel in him an ele- 
mental power, as if the need to know is 
as basic as the need for water, or air. 

"How goes- the war, Mistress?" 

Footsteps hurry toward us. 

I can't iook away from the soldier's 
eyes. He doesn't know, can't know, 
what he's asking, or of whom. My 
mouth forms the words softly, so that on- 
ly he hears. 

"You won. England surrendered in Oc- 
tober of 1781.". 

Something moves behind those 
black eyes, something so strong I 
draw back a little. Then they're on us, 
General Robinson first and behind him 
chief of medical staff, Colonel Dr. Wil- 
liam Bechtel. My father, who has denied 
me truth for thidy-five years. 

I have never stood by the mess tent 
with a young soldier. If you join the Ar- 
my at 20, right out of nursing school, 
and you stay in it for nineteen years, 
and you never wear a skirt or makeup, 
there is only one question your fellow 
soldiers come to ask. I know the an- 
swer: I am not homosexual. Neither, as 
far as I can tell, am I heterosexual. I 
have never wanted to feel anyone's 
touch on my hair in the moonlight. 

Dr. Bechtel was assigned to duty at 
the Hole the day it appeared. If I'd 
known this, I never would have request- 
ed a transfer. I was en route to the U.S. 
European Command in Stuttgart; I 
would have continued on my way 
there I use my dead mother's surname, 
and I don't think General Robinson 
knows that Bechtel is my father. Or may- 
be he does The Army knows every- 
thing; often it just doesn't make connec- 
tions among the things it knows. But 
that doesn't matter. I run the best nurs- 
ing unit under fire in the entire Army. I'd 



match my nurses with any others, any- 
where. I myself have performed opera- 
tions alongside the doctors, in Bogota, 
when there were five doctors for three 
hundred mangled and screaming sol- 
diers. I never see my father outside the 
OR. 

The new Arrival's name is Sergeant 
Edward Strickland, of the Connecticut 
Third Regiment. No modems are per- 
mitted in the Hole compound, which 
used to be Prospect Park in Brooklyn, 
but officers are issued dumb terminals. 
The Army has allowed us access to its 
unclassified history databanks. By this 
time we all know a lot about the Battle 
of Long Island, which a year ago most 
of us had never heard of. 

Strickland rates two mentions in the 
d-banks. In a 1776 letter to his wife, Gen- 
eral Israel Putnam praised Strickland's 
"bravery and fearlessness" in defend- 
ing the Brooklyn Heights entrench- 
ments. A year later, Strickland turns up 
on the "Killed in Action" list for the fight- 
ing around Peekskill. A son, Putnam 
Strickland, became a member of the 
Pennsylvania Legislature in 1794. 

My father never had a son. The crim- 
inal charges against him resulted in a 
hung jury, and the prosecutor chose not 
to refile but to refer the case to the Fam- 
ily Court of Orange County. After he 
was barred by the judge from ever see- 
ing me again, he lived alone. 

In the afternoon, a Special Forces 
team shows up to make a fourth assault 
on the Hole. During the first two, medi- 
cal staff had all been bundled into con- 
crete bunkers; maybe the Pentagon 
was afraid of an explosion from antimat- 
ter or negative tachyons or whatever the 
current theory is. By the third attempt, 
when it seemed clear nothing was go- 
ing to happen anyway, we were allowed 
to stay within a few yards of the Hole, 
which is as far as most Arrivals get. 

And farther than the assault team 
gets. The four soldiers in their clumsy 
suits lumber toward the faint shimmer 
that is all you can see of the Hole. I 
pause halfway between OR and Sup- 
ply, a box of registered painkillers in my 
hand, and watch. Sun glints off metal 
helmets. If the team actually gets 
through, will they be bulletproof on the 
other side? Will the battle for Brooklyn 
Heights and the Jamaica Road stop, in 
sheer astonishment at the monsters 
bursting in air? If the battle does stop, 
will the assault team turn around and 
lumber back, having satisfied the Pen- 
tagon that this really is some sort of 
time hole and not some sort of enemy 
illusion? (Which enemy?) Or will the 
team stay to give General Israel 
Putnam and his aide-de-camp Aaron 

66 OMNI 



Burr a strategy for defeating twenty thou- 
sand British veterans with five thousand 
half-trained recruits? 

Head nurses are not considered to 
have a need to know these decisions. 

When the assault team reaches the 
shimmer — I have to squint to see it in 
the sunlight — they stop. Each of the 
four suited figures bends forward, strain : 
ing, but nothing gives. Boxlike items— 
I assume they're classified weapons- 
are brought out and aimed at the shim- 
mer. Nothing. After ten minutes, three 
soldiers lumber back to the command 
bunker. 

The fourth stays. I wouldn't have 
seen what he did except that I turn 
around as three British soldiers fall 
through the Hole from the other side. An 
infantryman first, blood streaming from 
his mouth and nose, screaming, scream- 
ing. By the time [ reach him, he's 
dead. The other two come through twen- 



6An other 

musket discharges. A 

fourth 

British soldier has stumbled 

through the 

Hole and fired. The ball 

hits the 

young nurse in the chest.? 



ty feet east, and as I straighten up 
from bending over the infantryman, his 
blood-smearing my uniform, I see the 
Hole guards leap forward. A musket dis- 
charges, a sound more like an explo- 
sion than like the rat-a-tat-tat of our piec- 
es. I hit the dirt. The guards jump the 
other two redcoats. 

Beside me, just beyond the dead 
Brit, I see the assault-team lieutenant fin- 
ish his task. He's undogged the front of 
his suit, and now he reaches inside and 
pulls out something that catches the sun- 
light. I recognize it: Edward Strickland's 
hunting knife. He lobs it gently toward 
the Hole. It cuts' through the shimmer 
as easily as into butter and disappears. 

"Major! Major!" One of my young nurs- 
es runs toward me. For the second 
time I crawl up from the English soldier's 
body. 

Another musket discharges. A 
fourth British soldier, an officer, has stum- 
bled through the Hole and fired. The 
ball hits the young nurse in the chest, 
and she staggers backward and falls 
in a spray of blood just as the rat-a-tal- 



tat of assault rifles barks in the hot air. 

We're in OR all afternoon. I think that's 
the only reason they don't get to me un- 
til evening. My nurse, Lt. Mary Inghram, 
dies. The British major who killed her 
dies. One of the other British soldiers 
dies. The infantryman was already 
dead. The last Brit, a Captain John Per- 
cy Healy of His Majesty's Twenty-Third 
Foot under the command of Lord Wil- 
liam Howe, is conscious. He has arteri- 
al bleeding, contusions, and a complex 
femoral fracture. We put him under. To 
treat him and to autopsy the other 
three English soldiers, we have to re- 
move heavy winter uniforms, including 
watch coats and gloves. The cockade 
on Healy's tricorne is still wet with 
snow. 

I am just finishing at the dumb termi- 
nal when the aide comes for me. I ha- 
ven't even showered after OR, just re- 
moved my scrubs. The terminal screen 
says JOHN PERCY HEALY, THIRD 
SON OF VISCOUNT SHERINGHAM, 
1747-1809. (1) ARRIVAL IN VIRGINIA 
WITH TWENTY-THIRD FOOT, 1781, 
JUST PRIOR TO CORNWALLIS SUR- 
RENDER ATYORKTOWN. see Burke's 
Peerage. 

"Major Peters? The General wants to 
see you in his quarters, ma'am." 

1781. Five years after the Battle of 
Long Island. 

"Ma'am? He said right away, ma'am." 

What battle had Captain Healy 
been fighting on his side of the Hole? 

"Ma'am . ..." 

"Yes, soldier." The screen goes 
blank. After a moment, red letters ap- 
pear: ACCESS DENIED ALL PERSON- 
NEL UNTIL FURTHER NOTICE. 

General Robinson's quarters are as 
bleak as the rest of the compound: a 
foamcast "tent" that is actually a rigid, 
gray-green dome, furnished with stan- 
dard-issue cot, desk, locker, and termi- 
nal. He's made no effort at interior dec- 
oration, but on the desk stand pictures 
of his wife and three daughters. 
They're all pretty, smiling, dressed up 
for somebody's wedding. 
Bechtel is there. 

As. I stand at attention in front of the 
two men, I have a sudden memory of 
a doll I owned when I was a child. By 
the time the doll came to me from 
some other, forgotten child, its hair was 
worn to afragile halo through which you 
could see the cracked plastic scalp. 
One eye had fallen back into its head. 
It wore a stained red dress with a rav- 
eling hem where one sleeve should 
have been. My mother told me much lat- 
er that whenever I saw the doll around 
our house, I picked it up and carried it 





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biography 

C. ['hiiosL'Fliv/Ro.Li'ioii 

D. History 



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everywhere for a few days, but when I 
lost it, I didn't hunt for it. When it ap- 
peared again at my father's trial, it 
must have- seemed natural to me to 
once more take hold of its battered, in- 
different familiarity. I think now that I 
didn't understand to what use it was be- 
ing/'put; I don't remember what I 
thought then. I was four years old. 

Nor do I remember anything about 
the actual trial, only what I was told 
much later. But I know why I remember 
the doll. I even know why I think of it 
now, in the General's bunker. After the 
trial, my mother took the doll away and 
substituted another with the same 
Shape, the same dress, the same yel- 
low hair. Only this doll was new and un- 
used, its red satin dress shiny and dou- 
ble-sleeved. I remember staring at it, puz- 
zled, knowing something had changed 
but not how, nor why, It was the same 
doll — my mother told me it was the 
same doll — and yet it was not. I looked 
at my mother's face, and for the first 
time in what must have been the whole 
long mess of the trial, I felt the floor rip- 
ple and shake under my feet. My moth- 
er's smiling face looked suddenly far 
away, and blurred, as if she might be 
somebody else's mother. I remember I 
started screaming. 

The General says, "Major Peters, Ser- 
geant Strickland says you were the 
first person to talk to him after he 
gained consciousness. He says you 
told him the American colonists won the 
Revolution and that England surren- 
dered in 1781. Is that correct?" 

"Yes, sir." My shoulders are braced 
hard. I look directly at the General, and 
no one else. The General's face is very 
grave, 

"Were you aware of explicit orders 
that no medical personnel shall supply 
information concerning these men's fu- 
ture, under any circumstances?" 

"Yes, sir. I was." 

"Then why did you disobey the or- 
der, Major?" 

"I have no good reason, sir." 

"Then let's hear an ungood one, 
Major." 

He's giving me every chance to ex- 
plain. I wonder if General Israel 
Putnam was like this with his men, all 
of whom followed him with a fanatic de- 
votion, even when his military decisions 
were wrong. Even when a movement 
started to have him court-martialed for 
poor military judgment after the disas- 
ter of Long Island. Robinson watches 
me with grave, observant eyes. I might 
even have tried to answer him if Bech- 
tel hadn't been there. Bechtel is respon- 
sible for the conduct of his entire med- 
ical staff, of course, and for a sudden, 
horrified moment, I wonder if that's re- 
68 OMNI 



ally why I disobeyed orders. To get 
back at my father. 

But I can't say all that- out loud, not 
even if Bechtel were still posted halfway 
around the world. 

"No reason at all, sir," I say, and 
wait for my reprimand, or transfer, or 
court-martial. I'm not sure how serious- 
ly the Army takes this gag order with Ar-. 
rivals. I've never heard of anybody 
else disobeying it. 

The General shuffles some papers 
on his desk. "There is a complication, 
Major." He looks up at me, and now I 
see something else in his eyes besides 
fairness. He is furious. "Sergeant Strick- 
land refuses to talk to anyone but you. 
He says he trusts you and no one else, 
and unless you're present, he won't co- 
operate with Military Intelligence." 

I don't know what to say. 

"This is obviously an undesirable sit- 
uation, Major. And one for which you 



^Relief fills 

me like sunlight. No 

court-martial. 

If I cooperate, the whole 

thing will be 

overlooked — that's what the 

offer to keep 
my nursing duties means, 9 



may eventually be held responsible. In 
the meantime, however, you're needed 
to assist in the debriefing of Sergeant 
Strickland, and so you will report imme- 
diately to Colonel Orr and arrange a 
schedule for that. If that represents a 
conflict with your other duties, I will ar- 
range to relieve you of those." 

Relief fills me like sunlight. No court- 
martial. If I cooperate, the whole thing 
will be overlooked — that's what the of- 
fer to keep my nursing duties means. 
Robinson doesn't want an issue made 
of this one slip any more than I do. Slav- 
ering beyond the. perimeter of the high- 
security compound, along with the 
Brooklyn Zoo, are hundreds of journal- 
ists from around the world. The less we 
have to say to them, and they about us, 
the better. No duty goes on forever. 

"Yes, sir. There will be no conflict of 
duties. Thank you, sir." 

"You logged onto the library system 
last night." 

"Yes, sir." Of course log-ons would 
be monitored. The Army knows what I 
discovered about the Brit captain. The 



Army knows that I know they know. I 
like that. I joined the service for just 
these reasons: Actions are measurable, 
and privacy is suspect. 

"What did you learn about Captain 
Healy?" 

I answer immediately. "That he must 
come from a different past on the oth- 
er side of the Hole. A past in which 
evenls in the Revolution were somehow 
different from ours." 

Robinson nods. The carefully con- 
trolled anger fades from his eyes. I 
have passed some test. "You will say 
nothing of that speculation to Sergeant 
Strickland, Major. Anything you tell him 
will concern only history as it exists for 
us." 

He's asking me to not do something 
I would never have done anyway. I am 
the last person to offer Strickland a 
doubtful past. "Certainly, sir." 

"You will answer only such questions 
as Colonel Orr thinks appropriate." 

"Yes, sir." 

"There will be no more anomalies in 
any communication in which you are in- 
volved," 

"No, sir." 

"Fine," Robinson says. He rises. "I'm 
going for a walk." 

Without dismissing me. The General 
knows, then. He has cross-filed the per- 
sonnel records. Or Bechtel told him. 
Bechtel requested this "walk" to leave 
us alone for a moment. The skin over 
my beily crawls — Robinson knows, i 
stare straight ahead, still at attention. 

A long silent moment passes. 

Bechtel makes a noise, unclassifia- 
ble. His voice is soft as smoke. "Susan — 
I didn't do it." 

I stare straight ahead. 

"No matter what the judge decided. 
I never touched you. Your mother want- 
ed the divorce so bad she was willing 
to say anything. She did say anything. 
She—" 

"Will that be all, sir?" 

This time there is^ no soft noise. 
"Susan — she lied. Doesn't that matter 
to you?" 

"She said you lied," I say, and imme- 
diately am furious with myself for say- 
ing anything at all. I clench my jaw. 

My fury must somehow communicate 
itself to my father. In the stiffness of my 
already stiff body, in the air itself. He 
says tiredly, "Dismissed," and I hear in 
the single word things I don't want to 
examine. I walk stiff-legged from the 
tent. 

After the trial, I never touched the 
doll in the red dress again. 

My first interview with Sergeant Edward 
Strickland, Connecticut Third Regiment, 
First Continental Army, takes place the 



next morning. He's been moved from Re- 
covery Lo a secure bunker at the far end 
of the compound, although he slill has 
an elevated temperature and the re- 
mains of dysentery. Even in a standard- 
issue hospital gown he doesn't look 
like a man from our time. It's more than 
just the broken teeth. It's something un- 
broken in his face. He looks as if ass- 
covering is as foreign to him as poly- 
ester. 

"Sergeant Strickland," commands 
the Military Intelligence expert, Colonel 
Or p. Unseen recording equipment 
whirs quietly. "Tell us all your move- 
ments for the last few days, starting 
■with General Putnam's fortification of the 
Brooklyn Heights works." 

Strickland has apparently decided 
he is not enlisted in this Army. He ig- 
nores the colonel and says directly to 
me, "Where am I, Mistress Nurse?" 

6rr nods, almost imperceptibly. 
We've rehearsed this much. I say, 
"You're in an Army hospital on Long Is- 
land." 

"What date be today?" 

"July 15, 2001." 

I can't tell if he believes me or not. 
The fierce black eyes bore steadily, with- 
out blinking. I say, "What work did you 
do before you joined the Army, Ser- 
geant?" 

"I was a smith." 

"Where?" 

"Pomfret, Connecticut. Mistress . . . 
if this be the future, how come I to be 
here?" 

"We don't know. Three months ago 
soldiers from the Battle of Long Island 
began to stumble into a city park out 
of thin air. Most of them died. You 
didn't." 

He considers this. His gaze travels 
around the foamcast bunker, to my glass- 
es, to the M-18 held by the guard. 
Abruptly, he laughs. I see the moment 
he refuses the idea of the future with- 
out actually rejecting it, like a man who 
accepts a leaflet on a street corner but 
puts it in his pocket, unread, sure it has 
nothing to do with his real life. 

He says, "What losses did we suffer 
at Long Island?" 

"A thousand dead, seven hundred tak- 
en prisoner," I answer, and he flinches. 

"And the enemy?" 

"Howe reported sixty-one dead, twen- 
ty-nine missing." 

"How did the enemy best us?" 

"Surprised you with a flanking 
march down the Jamaica Road, with a 
force you couldn't possibly match." 

"How did Put retreat?" 

"By water, across the river to New 
York." 

It goes on like that, reliving military 
history 225 years dead. Six months ago, 

70 OMNI 



I knew none of it. Orr doesn't interrupt 
me. Probably he thinks that Strickland 
is learning to trust us. I know that Strick- 
land is learning to trust his own past, 
checking the details until he knows 
they're sound, constructing around him- 
self the solid world that must hold this 
mutable one. 

From the direction of the Hole 
comes the muffled sound oi musket 
fire. 

This time it's a Hessian, one of the mer- 
cenary forces serving the British under 
De Heister in front of the Flatbush 
pass. He's the first Hessian to come 
through the Hole. Screaming in Ger- 
man, he fights valiantly as the OR per- 
sonnel put him under. By the time I see 
him, swaddled in a hospital gown in Re- 
covery, his face is subdued in the un- 
natural sleep of anesthesia, and I see 
that although as big as Strickland, the 



tThis time 
it's a Hessian, one of the 

mercenary 

forces serving under De 

Heister at 

the Flatbush pass. He's the 

first Hessian 
to come through the Hole. 9 



Hessian mercenary is no more than 16. 
By our standards, a child. 

Strickland walks in, accompanied by 
the Ml colonel and a very attentive MP. 
Are they trying to build his trust by giv- 
ing him the illusion of free movement 
within the compound? He's the first Ar- 
rival who's ambulatory and still here. I 
think about how easily the Special Forc- 
es lieutenant slid Strickland's hunting 
knife back through the Hole, which not 
even our tanks had been able to pene- 
trate, and I bet myself that Old Put's Ser- 
geant's free movement has no more lat- 
itude than Put himself did on the Jamai- 
ca Road. 

Strickland gazes at the Hessian. "A 
boy. To do their fighting for 'em." The 
rough voice is heavy with sarcasm. 

"From De Heister's troops," I say, to 
say something. 

"Put always traded 'em back." 

"It must have been hard for them, to 
go so far from their homes," the nurse 
on duty, says tentatively. She has a 
high, fluttery voice. Strickland looks at 
.her with irony, a much more surprising 



expression on that rough face than sar- 
casm, and she flushes. He laughs. 

The German boy opens his eyes. His 
blurry gaze falls on Strickland, who 
again wears his own breeches and 
shirt and coat, with the strip of red 
cloth of a field sergeant sewn onto the 
right shoulder. The Hessian is probably 
in a lot of pain, but even so, his face 
brightens. 

"Mein Felowebel! Wir haben die sch- 
lact gewinnen, ja?" - 

The Military Intelligence colonel's 
eyes widen. Strickland's face turns to 
stone. Orr makes a quick gesture and 
the next minute both Strickland and I 
are being firmly escorted out of Recov- 
ery. Strickland shakes off the MP's arm 
and turns angrily to me. 

"What did he mean, 'Mein Fe- 
lowebel'? And, 'Wir haben die sch- 
lact gewinnen'?" 

I shake my head. "I don't speak Ger- 
man." 

Strickland looks at me a moment long- 
er, trying to see if I'm telling the truth. 
Evidently he sees from my face that I 
am. We stare at each other in the sun- 
light, while I wonder what the hell is hap- 
pening. Orr emerges from Recovery 
long enough to snap an order at the 
MP, who escorts Strickland back to his 
quarters. 

In my own quarters I fish out the Ger- 
man-American _ dictionary I bought 
when I thought I was being sent to 
Stuttgart instead of Brooklyn. It takes a 
long time to track down spellings in a 
language I don't speak, especially 
since I'm guessing at the dialect and 
at words I've only heard twice. Outside, 
two passing soldiers improvise a song- 
test: "There's a Hole in the battle, dear 
Gen'ral, dear Gen'ral; there's a Hole in 
the battle, dear Gen'ral, a Ho-oo-ole." 
Finally I piece together a translation of 
the German sentence. 

My sergeant! We won the battle, 
yes? 

I try to think about everything that 
would have had to be ditferent in the 
world for Frederick II of Hesse-Kassel 
to furnish mercenaries to the Colonial 
patriots instead of to the British, I can't 
do it; I don't know enough history. A mo- 
ment later, I realize how dumb that is: 
There's a much simpler explanation. De 
Heister's Hessian could simply have de- 
serted, changing sides in midwar. Loy- 
alties were often confused during the 
Revolution. Desertion was probably com- 
mon, even among mercenaries. 

Desertion is always common. 

My mother was born in 1935, but she 
didn't graduate from college until 1969. 
All her liie, which ended in a car crash, 
she kept the conviction of her adopted 



generation that things are only good be- 
fore they settle into formula. and routine. 
She marched against the draft, against 
Dow Chemical, against capitalism, 
against whaling She was never for any- 
thing. Shoulder to shoulder with a gen- 
eration that refused to trust anyone over 
thirty, this thirty-three year old noisily 
demonstrated her hatred for rules. 

All my childhood I never knew if I was 
supposed to be home for dinner by 
6:00, or 6:30, or at all. I never knew if 
the men she daled would return again, 
or be showered with contemptuous 
scorn, or move in. I never knew if the 
electricity would suddenly be cut off 
While I was doing my algebra home- 
work, or when we would move again in 
the middle of the night, leaving the gas 
bill shredded and the rent unpaid. I nev- 
er knew anything. My mother told me 
we were "really" rich, we were dirt 
poor, we were wanted by the law, we 
were protected by the law. At 17, I ran 
away from home and joined the Army, 
which put me through nursing school. 

My mother is buried in Dansville, 
New York, which I once saw from a Grey- 
hound Bus. It's a small town with order- 
ly nineteenth-century storefronts and 
bars full of middle-aged men in John 
Deere caps. These men, who pay their 
mortgages faithfully, stand beside 
their bar stools and argue in favor of cap- 
ital punishment, confiscation of drug 
dealers' cars, the elimination of Welfare, 
and the NRA. On summer weekends 
they throw rocks at the Women's 
Peace Collective enclave off Route 63. 
The Dansville cemetery is kept neatly 
mowed and clipped. I chose the burial 
plot myself. 

Captain John Percy Healy of His Maj- 
esty's Twenty-Third Foot is kept under 
close guard. Strickland couldn't get any- 
where near him, even if he knew that 
Healy and his winter-clad Battle of 
Long Island existed. Nor can he get 
near the Hole, although he tries. The 
summer sun is slanting in long lines 
over the compound when he breaks 
away from the Ml colonel and the body- 
guard MP and me and sets off at a 
dead run toward the Hole. His head is 
down, his powerful legs pumping. As 
each leg lifts, I see a hole in the sole of 
his left boot flash and disappear, flash 
and disappear. 

"Halt!" shouts Colonel Orr. 'The 
guards at the Hole raise their weapons. 
The MP, whose fault this escape is, 
starts to run after Strickland, realizes he 
can't possibly catch him, and draws his 
gun. "Halt, or we'll fire!" 

They do. Slrickland goes down, hit 
irrthe leg. He drags himself toward the 
Hole ori his elbows, his body thrashing 

72 OMNI 



from side lo side on the hard ground, 
a thin line of blood trickling behind. I 
can't see' his face. The MP reaches him 
before I do- and Strickland fights him 
fiercely, in silence. 

Three more soldiers are on him. 

I've seen more direct combat nurs- 
ing than any other nurse I've met per- 
sonally, but in OR I can't look at Striek : 
land's eyes. If he had reached the 
Hole, he could have gone through, and 
I'm the only person in the room who 
knows this. Not even Strickland knows 
it. He only acted as if he did. 

Dr. Bechtel sends for me the next morn- 
ing. He's the chief of medical staff. I go. 

"Susan, I think . . . ." 

"'Major,' sir. I would prefer to be 
called 'Major.' Sir," 

He doesn't change expression. "Ma- 
jor, I think it would be a good idea if you 
requested a transfer to another unit." 



4The summer 

sun is slanting in long 

lines 

over the compound when 

Strickland 

breaks away and sets off 

at a dead 

run toward the Hole.? 



I draw a deep breath. "Are you ro- 
tating me out, sir?" 

"No!" For a second some emotion 
breaks through -anger? fear? guilt? — 
and then is gone. "I'm suggesting you 
voluntarily apply for a transfer. You're 
not doing your career any good here, 
with Strickland, not the way things 
have turned out. There are too many 
anomalies. The Army doesn't like 
anomalies, Major." 

"The entire Hole is an anomaly. Sir." 

He permits himself a thin smile. 
"True enough. And the Army doesn't 
like it." 

"I don't want to transfer," 

He looks at me directly. "Why not?" 

"I prefer not to, sir," I say. Isanonan- 
swer answer an anomaly? I can feel ev- 
ery tendon in my body straining toward 
the door. And yet there is a horrible fas- 
cination, loo, in staring at him like this. 
Somewhere in my mind a four-year-old 
girl touches a one-eyed doll in a rav- 
eled red dress. Here. He touched me 
here. Arid here .... But did he? 

The four-year-old doesn't answer. 



"Strickland is asking to see you," he 
says wearily. "No — demanding -to see 
you. Somewhere he saw Healy's uni- 
form. Being carried across the parade 
ground from the cleaning machine, may- 
be — I don't know. He won't say." 

I picture Healy's heavy watch, coat, 
his red uniform with the regimental ep- 
aulets on both shoulders, his crimson 
sash. 

"Strickland's smart," I say slowly, and 
immediately regret it. I'm participating 
in the conversation as if it were normal. 
I don't want to give him that. 

"Yes," my father says, a shade too 
eagerly. "He's figured out that there are 
multiple realities beyond the Hole. Mul- 
tiple Battles of Long Island. Maybe even 
entirely different American Revolu- 
tions .... I don't know." He passes a 
hand through his hair and I'm jolted by 
an unexpected memory, shimrnery and 
dim: my Daddy at the dinner table, talk- 
ing and passing a hand through his 
hair, myself in a highchair with round 
beads on the tray, beads that spin and 
slide. . . . "The Pentagon moves him 
out tomorrow." 

"Strickland?" 

"Yes, of course, that's who we've 
been talking about," He peers at me, I 
give him nothing, wooden-faced. Abrupt- 
ly he says, "Susan — ask for a transfer." 

"No, sir," I say. "Not unless that's an 
order." 

We stand at opposite ends of the bun- 
ker, and the air shimmers between us. 

"Dismissed," he says quietly. I salute 
and leave, but as I reach the door, he 
tries once more. "I recommend that you 
don't see Strickland again. No matter 
what he demands. For the sake of your 
own career." 

"Recommendation noted, sir," I say, 
without inflection. 

Outside, the night is hot and still. I 
have trouble breathing the stifling air. 
I try to think what could have prompt- 
ed my father's sudden concern with my 
career, but no matter .how I look at it, I 
can't see any advantage to him in keep- 
ing me away from Strickland. Only to 
myself. The air trembles with heat light- 
ning. Beyond the compound, at the 
Brooklyn Zoo, an elephant bellows, as 
if in pain. 

The next day the Hole closes. 

I'm not there at the time — 0715 hours 
EDT — but one of the guards retells the 
story in the mess tent. "There was this 
faint pop, like a kid's toy gun. Yoder hit 
the dirt and pissed his pants — " 

"I did not! Fuck you!" Yoder yells, 
and there are some good-natured in- 
sults and pointless shoving before any- 
body can overhear what actually did 
happen. 





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No matchsticks may be hear, broken or placed over each oilier. 



II 






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"This little pop, and the shimmer 
kinda disappeared, and that was it. Spe- 
cial Forces showed up and they 
couldn't get in—" 

"When could they ever?" someone 
says slyly, a female voice, and there are 
laughter and nudges. 

"And that was it. The Hole went bye- 
bye," the guard says, reclaiming 
group attention. 

"So when do we go home?" 

"When the Army fucking says you 
do." 

They move Strickland out the next 
day. I don't see him. No one reports if 
he asks for me. Probably not. At some 
point Strickland decided that his trust 
in me was misplaced, born of one of 
those chance moments of emotion 
that turn out to be less durable than ex- 
pected. I wasn't able to help him toward 
the Hole. All I was able to do was tell 
him military information that may or may 
not be true for a place and time that he 
can't ever reach again. 

Curiously enough, it is the Brit, Ma- 
jor John Healy, to whom we make a dif- 



He is with us a week before they 
move him, recovering from his injuries. 
The broken leg sets clean. Military In- 
telligence, in the form of Colonel Orr, 
goes in and out of his heavily guarded 



bunker several times a day. Orr is nev- 
er there while I'm changing Healy's 
dressings or monitoring his vitals, but 
Healy is especially thoughtful after Orr 
has left. He watches me with a be- 
mused expression, as if he wonders 
what I'm thinking. 

He's nothing like Strickland. Slight, 
fair, not tall, with regular features and 
fresh-colored skin. Healy's speech is pre- 
cise and formal, courteous, yet with a 
mocking gaiety in it. Even here, which 
seems to me a kind of miracle. He's fas- 
tidious about his dress, and a military 
orderly actually learns to black boots. 

Between debriefings, Healy reads. 
He requested the books himself, all pub- 
lished before 1776; but maybe that's all 
he's permitted. Gulliver's Travels. Robin- 
son Crusoe. Poems by somebody 
called -.Alexander Pope. I've never 
been much of a reader, but I saw the 
MGM movie about Crusoe, and I look 
up the others. They're all books about 
men severely displaced. Once Heaiy, 
trying to make conversation, tells me 
that he comes from London, where his 
family has a house in Tavistock Place, 
also a "seat" in Somerset. 

i refuse to be drawn into conversa- 
tion with him. 

On the day they're going to move 
him, Bechtel does a complete medical. 



I assist. Naked, with electrodes at- 
tached to his head and vials of blood 
drawn from his arm, Healy suddenly be- 
comes unstoppably talkative. 

"In London, the physicians make use 
of leeches to accomplish your identical 
aims." 

Bechtel smiles briefly. 

"In my London, that is. Not in yours. 
There is a London here, I presume, Doc- 
tor?" 

"Yes," Bechtel says. "There is." 

"Then there exist two. But there's rath- 
er more, isn't there? One for the Hes- 
sian. One for that Colonial who attempt- 
ed escape back through the ... the 
time corridor. Probably others, is that 
not so?" 

"Probably," Bechtel says. He studies 
the EKG printout. 

"And in some of these Londons, we 
put down the Rebellion, and in others, 
you Colonials succeed in declaring your- 
self a sovereign nation, and perhaps in 
still others, the savages destroy you all 
and the Rebellion never even occurs. 
Have I understood the situation correct- 
ly?" 

"Yes," Bechtel says. He looks at the 
Brit now, and I am caught by the look 
as well — by its unexpected compas- 
sion. 

The vial of blood in my hand seems 

CONTINUED ON PAQE 87 73 



Consider, briefly, Wil- 
liam Colby's resum6. 
During World War II, he 
served with the OSS as a 
Jedburgh team leader, 
parachuting into occupied 
Norway and France. 

In the Fifties — by then a 
career officer in the Office 
of Policy Coordination of 
the fledgling Central Intelli- 
gence Agency — he con- 
ducted covert operations 
in Sweden and Italy in 
support of U.S. policy 
objectives. 

From 1962 until 1967, 
the years during which the 
United States' involvement 
in Vietnam came to 
dominate the national 
consciousness, he was 
chief of the CIA's Far East 
Division. From 1968 to 
1971, on loan to the 
Agency for International 
Development, he served in 
Saigon, with the rank of 
ambassador, as director 
of Civil Operations and 
Rural Development Sup- 
port (CORDS). 

In the early Seventies, 
he served as the CIA's 
deputy director of opera- 
tions, the Agency's clan- 
destine branch. And on 
September 4, 1973, Colby 
was sworn in as the tenth 
director of Central intelli- 
gence, a position from 
which he retired on 
January 30, 1976. It is not 
the resume of a dove. 

When Joan Baez de- 
cries our level of national 
spending on defense and 
urges us to redirect our 
common resources to 
more pressing domestic 
needs, well, we are not 
startled. When an ex- 
director of the Central 
Intelligence Agency, howev- 
er, calls publicly for a 
reduction in defense 
spending by half over the 
next five years (a cut 
seven times greater than 
that proposed by the 
previous administration) 
and is willing to explain in 
detail why we can do so 
safely, well, perhaps we 
should pay attention. 

in order to learn more 
about his proposals, I 



IfUTERVIEUU 




A COB.& WAR SUPERSPY AND MASTER Of 

COVERT OPERATIONS OFFER& A &&S.D 

PLAN FOR OUR NATIONAL SECURITY. 

PHOTOGRAPHS BY PETER LIEPKS 



traveled to Washington, 
DC, not long ago to speak 
with Mr. Colby. I arrived 
late on a Monday af- 
ternoon. We were to meet 
at his Georgetown town- 
house the next morning, 
and I decided, on my 
evening stroll, to scout out 
the address which I had 
been given. 

Much has been written 
recently about the decline 
of Georgetown, of the 
proliferation of kiddie bars 
on M Street and of 
boutiques on Wisconsin 
specializing in jewelry for 
crack dealers. 

Mr. Colby does not live 
in that part of Georgetown. 

Mr. Colby lives, rather, 
in a lovely, quiet, tree-lined 
cul-de-sac not far from 
Montrose Park, in the sort 
of neighborhood in which 
a copy of The Green Book, 
the DC social register, 
could probably be found 
somewhere in every house 
on the block. 

Curious about the secu- 
rity arrangements for a 
retired DCI, I walked 
slowly by the house, 
fro ling -without success for 
pinstriped Dobermans. Daw- 
dling at the far end of the 
block, however, I glanced 
over my shoulder and saw 
a trim, neatly barbered 
older man in a suit emerge 
from a highly polished car 
in front of Colby's house, 
carrying a briefcase and a 
brown paper bag full of 
groceries. 

Porco Dio! M?! Lugging 
'home the Skippy and 
White Cloud?! My evening 
is spent in proud reflection 
on the virtues of the Open 
Society, 

In his living room the 
next morning, Mr. Colby 
denies any knowledge of, 
or involvement with, the 
previous evening's grocer- 
ies. Deniability, of course, 
is everything in the 
intelligence business. He 
does, however, discuss 
his defense-spending pro- 
posals and his thoughts 
on the force levels 
appropriate to our future 
national defense require- 



merits, his vision of our 
domestic national security 
needs and of current 
external threats, the 
possibility of a return to 
fascism in an embittered 
Russia (and a possible 
Gorbachev comeback), 
and the prospect of ethnic 
wars a la Bosnia- 
Herzegovina-Croatia in the 
former Soviet Union. 

Also, since Mr. Colby is 
very generous in the 
latitude he permits his 
interviewer, we talk about 
the Vietnam War, the 
charges of torture and 
assassination in the Phoe- 
nix Program, allegations of 
CIA involvement in drug 
trafficking in Laos, the 
attention span of democra- 
cies, and his relations, as 
DCI, with the legendary 
James Jesus Angleton. 

And finally (while we're 
at it), why was Francis 
Nugen carrying Colby's 
business card when he 
was found shot to death? 

The questions, then, in 
order of decreasing discre- 
tion. — Hampton Howard. 
(Editor's note: Mr. Howard 
is the author of the novel 
of international espionage, 
Friends, Russians, and 
Countrymen; St. Martins 
Press, 1988.) 

Omni: In a tape for 
Senator Howard Met- 
zenbaum's Coalition for 
Democratic Values, you 
recently called (or reduc- 
ing national defense spend- 
ing by half over the next 
five years. What's the 
rationale underlying your 
proposal? 

Colby: It's simple. I'm an 
intelligence officer by 
profession. One of the 
jobs of an intelligence 
officer is to understand 
and rank in order the 
threats around us. At a 
time when we faced 
25,000 nuclear warheads 
and a 5 million-man Red 
Army and its allies, our 
biggest problem was the 
deterring and containing 
of that threat to Western 
civilization. That threat no 
longer exists. The Red 

76 OMNI 



Overt surveillance: 
Former DCI's 
heme in quiet section 
of Georgetown; 
staking out the en- 
trance to the CiA 
offices in Washington. 




BORN: 

January 4, 1920 

MOST NOTABLE JOB: 

Director of Central 
Intelligence, 1973-1976 

TIPS ON TRADE 

"Fewer operations people , 
studying Polish; 
more studying Arabic." 

"You're not going to pay your 

agents in Poland in 

dollar bills, or bright, new 

zloty, either. You're 

going to get some dirty old 

zloty that has been 

kicked about for a long time 

so the numbers 

are no longer identifiable." 



"The way you run an 
intelligence agency is to 
assume either that 
you have a current penetration, 
or that somebody ■ 
can defect, or just go out 
and blab too much." 

ON JAMES JESUS 
ANGLETONt 

"In the end, he got off on 
a wrong twist. That's 
why I began to take things 
away from him, hoping 
he'd take the hint and leave." 

QUOTE: 

"We must recognize 

that the safety 

and weltare of our people 

are the real 

national security issues." 



Army is no longer at the 
Fulda Gap ready to burst 
over to the English 
Channel in two weeks, as 
used to be our estimate. 
They are now 500 miles 
farther east, save for some 
remnants still selling their 
overcoats and so forth. 
Their allies are now our 
allies — or would-be allies. 
[If, in the new, unitary 
Germany, you were to 
drive east from Mulhausen 
(in Thuringia) to have 
lunch in Kassel, the next 
largest town over, you 
would on your way drive 
through the Fulda Gap 
and across what was once 
probably the most closely 
watched bit of border in 
Europe. If you were to take 
the tank, rather than the 
car, it would be the only 
practical route. — H.H.] 

We now have a different 
world in which every 
dispute is not immediately 
the focus of Soviet- 
American confrontation as 
used to be the case — in 
Cuba, Poland, Vietnam, 
the Middle East, and all 
the rest. In the Gulf War, 
we actually worked with 
the Soviets. It was rocky 
from time to time, but we 
basically cooperated. 

Now I'm not advocating 
a euphoric demobiliza- 
tion. My father was 
an officer in the U.S. Army 
between the two wars 
when we had a force of 
3,000 officers and 
150,000 men — an army 
smaller than Romania's at 
the time. And after 
World War II, we de- 
mobilized a 12 million- 
man force down to about 
a million and a half in 10 
or 12 months, then had 
quite a problem when we 
had to rebuild. My point is 
that we need available 
force levels appropriate to 
the demands we may 
have to face. 
Omni: What, specifically, 
are those appropriate 
force levels? 

Colby: The Gulf War gives 
us a pretty good bench- 
mark. We sent 540,000 
men and women over 



there. About 116,000 were reserves, 
so we sent about 425,000 regulars, 20 
percent of our total force. Could we 
have sent 40 percent? I think so. Lets 
look at it in terms of divisions. We have 
18 army divisions. How many did we 
send to the Gulf? Seven. How many do 
we need? Nine or ten. How many carri- 
er task forces do we have? Fourteen. 
How many did we send to the Gulf? 
Five. How many do we need? Eight. 
Four in each ocean, two at sea, and two 
in port. Could you surge to five in each 
ocean? Yes, no trouble at all. 

I'd apply the same thing to other forc- 
es. You could save substantially in the 
. whole nuclear area. The number of war- 
heads has got to go way below the 
3,000 or 3,500 Bush and Yeltsin agreed 
on. I'd say less than 1,000 and maybe 
down to three or four hundred for po- 
tential retaliation again?.; someone who 
threatened to use such weapons. It's mu- 
tual terror, after all, that kept the peace 
between the Soviets and Americans all 
these years. If there are guys who 
want to play terror, well, we have to 
face up to them and convince them 
they can't get away with it. But that's not 
the kind of force we have now. That's 
not the number of submarines or bomb- 
ers. That's not the B-2 bomber, and it's 
not SDI [Strategic Defense Initiative], 
the least efficient way of protecting our- 
selves from some mad missile thrower. 

Again, I'm not proposing disarma- 
ment, merely a force level appropriate 
to the biggest kind of expedition we're 
going to be asked to do. If Russia and 
the Ukraine go to war, we're not going 
to be on one side or the other. We're 
going to be out of it. The only real prob- 
lem is people like the North Koreans, 
Saddam Hussein, or a few other poten- 
tials around the world who could require 
us, with the cooperation of the United 
Nations and others, to use force. 

We're still the leading nation in the 
world, and we have to keep that lead- 
ership position to be responsible and 
not go into the sort of isolationism that 
was such a disaster in my youth. But 
we're not alone. There's a lot of money 
around that can help on these sorts of 
things, which is why we can scale 
down our present force levels by half 
over the next five years. 
Omni: A reduction in defense spending 
would presumably be accomplished by 
a reduction in spending for intelligence. 
How might intelligence reductions be ac- 
complished'' 

Colby: That's classified, and I don't 
have any access to it. But one thing 
that's fairly obvious would be the rath- 
er intense technological aspect , . . 
Omni: The "vacuum cleaner"? — the 
vast electronic spying systems? 
78 OMNI 



Colby: Yeah, the electronic vacuum 
cleaner,, satellite photography, and so 
forth. The expensive element, A lot of 
that is very expensive. Some of the tac- 
tical intelligence expense drops with a 
reduction of the forces, obviously. But 
you're not going to reduce your analysts 
much, because in light of what's hap- 
pening in Russia and'the other former 
Soviet republics, they are becoming al- 
most more important. We'll have fewer 
operations people studying Polish and 
more studying Arabic, but that's not 
where the big money is. The big mon- 
ey's in technical systems and in proc- 
essing. If you're literally worried about 
the Fulda Gap at 4:00 a.m. tomorrow, 
you're going to process every little flick- 
er of information as fast as you can. But 
if you say, "No, the threat ain't there," 
then you can process at a more leisure- 
ly pace, do periodic looks rather than 
constant looks. 



tThink how many 
good sergeants and petty 

officers would 
make fabulous teacher's 

aides or police 
assistants, serving as role 

models. They'd 
be enormously effective. 9 



Omni: Your proposed spending cuts se- 
riously distress powerful and en- 
trenched special interests. How would 
you redirect spending to engineer po- 
litical support for these cuts? 
Colby: Some of the savings should sure- 
ly be spent on a proper conversion pro- 
gram. One of the most valuable invest- 
ments this country ever made was 
the Gl Bill. I profited from it, and it 
changed American education almost to- 
tally. Certainly anyone who loses a job 
should be retrained for anew job, with 
transitional support, moving expenses, 
and sustenance, while they're undergo- 
ing retraining. We need research, invest- 
ment incentives, and so forth to get new 
industries going. 

The most proximate danger to most 
American citizens is walking through the 
center city. That's insecurity! It's not go- 
ing to be solved by soldiers, but by 
jobs, economic opportunity, investment, 
enterprise zones. Our youth are threat- 
ened by a terrible new plague, AIDS, 
and that is" not going to be solved by 
_ soldiers, but by high-intensity medical 



research, health care, social work. 
Think how many of our good sergeants 
and petty officers would make fabulous 
teacher's aide? or police assistants, serv- 
ing as role models for some of the de- 
prived people in this country. They'd be 
enormously effective. 

We must recognize that the safety 
and welfare of our people are the real 
national security issues. If a foreign ar- 
my were invading Florida, ~ ; or instance, 
we'd all be alert. Well, if the ozone con- 
tinues to decline and the Antarctic ice- 
cap melts, we're going to lose half of 
Florida. You can read the numbers; it's 
quite possible. Is that a threat to our se- 
curity? Yes. 

If a million-man army were coming 
over the border, we'd be ready to fight 
with everything we had. Yet a half-mil- 
lion people do come into this country 
every year. They're good people, seek- 
ing a betfer life, but we've lost control 
of our borders. How do you solve that? 
Not by border guards. You solve it by 
developing a new Sun Belt to our 
south so that there are jobs, hope, and 
lives worth living there. Then you won't 
have that invasion. 

Omni: Where does the gravest external 
threat to national security lie today? 
Colby: Well, I still worry about Kim II 
Sung of North Korea. And Saddam Hus- 
sein is still a threat. Iran, too, potential- 
ly, although I think they're trying to 
grope their way back into the real 
world. In international developments, 
there are two issues of paramount im- 
portance today. One is the GATT, the 
General Agreement on Tariff and 
Trade. That's in trouble because of the 
farmers in various countries, including 
the United States. The other is what hap- 
pens to the former Soviet republics. 

The Russians might turn to a new fas- 
cism out of frustration with their present 
situation — which is why it's so import- 
ant that we help them move the proc- 
ess in the right direction. Think of 1918 
and 1945. In 1918, the victorious allies 
crushed their former enemies. They 
changed their borders, governments, ex- 
acted reparations, and got Adolf 
Hitler. In 1945, we decided to lift our for- 
mer enemies to responsible member- 
ship in the international community, and 
now Germany and Japan are the two 
richest countries in the world. We're a 
lot better off having them as economic 
competitors than military enemies. 
Omni: Supporters of the Russian vice 
president, Alexander Rutskoi, have re- 
ferred to the West as Russia's "adver- 
sary." What about Rutskoi — are we go- 
ing to hear more from him? 
Colby: Russia's situation is terribly, ter- 
ribly dependent upon the continued 
health and vitality of one man, Boris Yelt- 

eo NUM.. i ED ON PAGE 89 




J( 



© ARTCUMINJGS 

Whecb ,s 

he trying 

to say ? 



He is ■Focwsing 
ort an 
exaltation of 
Simplicity — 




Attempting to 

free the intellect 
of mankind — 




To expunge, erase, 
blow-out and destroy 
it's 
excesses 





Thank God 
it's 
only a phase . 




UFO UPDAT 

SECRET CONFERENCE AT MIT: 

Despite an oath of silence, abduction attendees 

spill the beans 



— 


Despi, 


e the dra 


na and e 


round the world. UFO new 


sletters 


and magazines 


: 


gp31 j their stories, UFO ab- e 
S5g«j .>'; ■ ductees have long been 1 
Pl&M fv mired in d isrepute. From 


n North America and Europ 

II these forums, the meetin 

A\l abduction conference" 

The details of the conie 


e carried reports. And in 
l was referred to as "the 
after all. 
rence, say attendees, 




j-^-' ; *T to the surgical the 

*|. "tv starships, the hor 

1 3 ? ; j':; ■%-/■• ductees describe!" 


eJJS^B 


mMm 


bbebib 


: *»-. .. : come objects of c 
— ' 1 and the butt ol 
That's why when Massachusetts Institute of 1 
ogy physics professor and UFO advocate 
Pritchard decided to hold an abductee conf 


luding the case of New 
Cathy," who says she wa 


York condo abductee 
3 beamed to a starship 


SSBS 


rise, and South Ameri- 
rced to have sex with 
eteran California UFOi- 


even arranged to hold the conference at his h 
stitution, that hallmark of science and technolo 


istinguished between two 1 
liens, the less experiencec 


/pes of aliens. "Camp B 
and far less careful, are 


ffwwm* ^WBMOT',' 1 . i •') ¥rm 


eat animals under study," 
liens, on the other hand, 
jng time," and are "much m 
evolent attitude." 
Some conference details 


he explained. "Camp A 
ave been around for a 
jre likely to display a be- 
even leaked out on na- 


MgM|^»g 


svided, t 
tration i 
rement p 
confer- h 
t 
ration, c 




rrestrial implants are be- 
." The implants, he ex- 
the movement and be- 
The claim was disputed 


ence, but rather, "the conference 
Before attendees were accepte 


at MIT." 
d for regis 


y Pritchard, who, after study 
ailed the evidence "totally 


ng some of the implants, 
jnconvincing." 


n fact, Pritchard had them sign ar 
call the conference just that. And \ 


oath pledging to 
while he was writ- r 


With a yen for respectabili 
alease published conferenc 

hope it will present a corr 
rly overview of this pheno 
nat is broad and bal- | n 


y, Pritchard promises to 
e proceedings any day. 


ng a formal oath, he added some n 
own. Foremost was the stipulatio 
promise not to discuss the procee 


quirementsofhis ' 
n that attendees a 
lings with outsid- t 


prehens 
nenon," 
the xpit 


ble and schol- 
he says, "one 
it of academ- 


ers or reporters, or for that matter, in any public to- s 
rum at all. The restraints, Pritchard told attendees, s 
were necessary to "encourage discussion." Present- p 


need enough to attract 
ome competent, skilled ; c 
eople into the field." 
he published proceed- n < 
gs, he adds, will hope- 
lly counterbalance "sin- | e 


! reed»n 


, MIT placed 


contributions so that they "appear judicious and re- i 
strained in print." i 


ef matte 


randprovid- 


But despite all efforts to maintain secrecy, the event gle-author books, which 






aegan circulating c 




support like food 
d lodging at cost. 


among UFOIogists by word of mo 
bulletin boards, and at flying-sau 


Jth, on computer s 
cer conferences 


ent a balanced view." 

—JAMES OBERG or 





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DEEP SPACE 



:."jn i iNur:; F=a\' fagi -n 



fleeted in their technology and arl and 
costume. "We made some rules for 
Cardassians. They love ellipses but 
don't like 90-degree angles. They like 
obtuse angles. They like things in sets 
of threes. Militaristic, they like dark col- 
ors. We've made a palette of philoso- 
phy that we've used to create the 
Cardassian world. Since the labor on 
the station was Bajoran, we've got a 
Bajoran temple inside here." 

Deep Space Nine will be technolog- 
ically different from previously con- 
ceived stations in space, Michael 
Okuda notes. "The O'Neil colonies are 
largely driven by the technology of cen- 
trifugal gravity and a shell of accreted 
material for radiation protection as well 
as solar collection devices. In Star 
Trek, we've established artificial gravi- 
ty, deflector shields, fusion, and antimat- 
ter power. So the aspects that drive an 
O'Neil station are not present here." 

The Art Department, overseen by Ran- 
dy Mcllvain, works to contribute bizarre 
but consistent alien technology, just as 
the makeup division is much busier 
with Deep Space, contributing the ali- 
ens that will populate the much-talked- 
84 OMNI 



about Promenade. 

"There are a lot more graphics in the 
new show," says scenic artist assistant 
and Oscar winner for Dick Tracy Doug 
Drexler. "The Enterprise is a lot more con- 
solidated. This is a lot more fun. 
There's a ton of graphics!" Even as he 
talked, he hardly missed a beat in his 
work on pictures of alien meals he had 
developed by overlaying blowups of mi- 
croorganisms with pictured dishes 
from a food magazine. "They're giving 
Michael Westmore and the makeup 
folks a lot more room here. Roddenber- 
ry didn't want a Star Wars feel to Next 
Generation. Still, even with this show, 
the aliens are us; the aliens are differ- 
ent slices of human beings. We should 
see ourselves in them." 

"Based on what I've seen, it looks 
like there's going to be more science 
fiction and more science in this show," 
says Paul Lynch, director of "A Man 
Alone," the first hour episode of the se- 
ries. "Deep Space Nine is a little dark- 
er, there's a greater cross section of crea- 
tures and activity and conflict. It's still 
a family show, but it can deal with oth- 
er things and has a greater scope 
than Next Generation." 

Will there be a new wave of SF on 

television i'f Deep Space Nine is the hit 

, Next Generation was? "SF program- 



ming costs so much to do. Star Wars 
built the audience. When Next Gener- 
ation came on the air, it brought all 
those fans and then their families. The 
latest is Terminator II. But they can't go 
on making films at a 100 million dollars 
each. To properly compete, you've got 
to spend as much money. Look at 
these sets! You'll see lots of aliens, 
There's so much makeup!" He -points 
around. "It's unfortunate, but in today's 
world, it's true." 

"There are already a half-do2en oth- 
er shows trying to jump on the band- 
wagon of what Next Generation has ac- 
complished," says Rick Berman. "As we 
speak, the show has been the number- 
one syndicated show for the last four 
weeks. I don't think there's a produc- 
tion company in town that wouldn't 
want to emulate that." Having Rodden- 
berry's universe has been a plus from 
the beginning. "It was a big gamble at 
first, and there have been other at- 
tempts [at SF shows] that have not 
paid off. The strength and familiarity of 
Star Trek is not to be underrated. If 
these new shows succeed, I think 
there will be a lot more people jumping 
on the bandwagon." 

"Deep Space Nine will appeal to 
everyone," says Cirroc Lofton, who 
plays the Army-brat son of Command- 
er.Sisko. Lofton is a 14-year old who 
doubtless will outgrow his costume as 
often as Wil Wheaton outgrew Wesley 
Crusher's uniform. "The first two series 
didn't have a father — well, it's a family 
show that's going to appeal to the au- 
dience also established and other au- 
diences as well." 

It's readily apparent that the secret 
to the success of the Star Trek universe 
isn't merely special eflects or science 
or science fiction or makeup, but the ap- 
peal of the characters to audiences 
who return week after week to spend 
time with people they know. And Deep 
Space Nine seems to be working hard 
to come up with interesting characters, 
but perhaps with a significant twist. All 
the things that made Next Generation 
are here, from writers to art and make- 
up to special effects. However, "I think 
we're going to have stranger and weird- 
er here," says Lynch. "Even the main 
characters will take some odd turns." 
Ira Steven Behr, supervising produc- 
er, points out, "As characters, there's 
a certain lack of control which they 
have over their lives which I like as a 
writer." To which coproducer and writ- 
er Peter Allan Fields adds, "I don't 
think there's any less depth of charac- 
ter on the Enterprise; it's just all been 
smoothed out. On Deep Space Nine, 
they haven't been." 

"The premiere is filled with pyrotech- 




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nics and space and a c: venture," says 
. Rene Auberjonois. "But the core of the 
show is about Sisko trying to come to 
terms with his own humanity and the 
pain he's experienced. He's quite com- 
plex, and it's really a study about how 
you move on from ioss and grief. It's 
about how we have to move, how we 
have a sense of time. 

"I just saw the movie about Stephen 
Hawking, A Brief History of Time. Hawk- 
ing makes the observation that time is 
really our invention, that if we can re- 
member the past, why can't we remem- 
ber the future? This tries to deal with 
that. We limit ourselves by trying to live 
in this very linear world. 

"I was sitting in my kitchen the other 
night, having a sandwich. I was very 
tired; I'd been working all day. I turned 
on the TV and there was the original 
Star Trek. In the scene, one of the char- 
acters was using what I recognized as 
a Windex spray bottle. Now, I know 
that when that episode was first aired, 
it was at a time when such a bottle was 
not in common use. It must have 
looked very futuristic then. Now, 
though, it looked like, well, a Windex bot- 
tle! Hardly futuristic. We would be pre- 
sumptuous not to think that twenty 
years from now, people — the Good 
Lord willing — might look at what Deep 
Space Nine uses the same way. I walk 
around this set and see all the technol- 
ogy and say, 'Wow! Where did they get 
that?!' But twenty years from now, peo- 
ple might look at it and chuckle like we 
do at Fritz Lang's Metropolis. This 
does not diminish us. Even though 
Deep Space Nine is about the future, 
we're dealing with the present." 

The success of The Next Generation. 
the Star Trek movies, and the original 
series in syndication, has prompted Par- 
amount to invest" a stunning amount of 
money in the new series. The compa- 
ny has committed to produce close to 
a full season of shows. All people in- 
volved share an attitude of excitement 
and confidence. Other SF shows, of 
course, have come and gone. The key 
to Star Trek's success is the attention 
to detail, character, and story that 
have made it a part of world culture. Sci- 
ence fietion's potential is as vast as the 
worlds it comprises — vast as the imag- 
inations of mankind and the unlocking 
wonder of the universes of science. 

Deep Space Nine appears to be a 
viable new face of science-fiction tel- 
evision—science fiction period. It prom- 
ises to appeal not only to those famil- 
iar with the jolts of awe and comprehen- 
sion the genre holds, but to an audi- 
ence perhaps not yet familiar with sci- 
ence fiction's pleasures, aesthetics, and 
challenges. DO 



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CATALOG 




Cancer 



lymph system.) In two patients, cancer 
tissue that had remained after standard 
chemotherapy completely disappeared. 
A one-inch swollen cancerous lymph 
node under the jaw of one patient sim- 
ply disappeared. 

The injections led to a sustained im- 
mune response in seven of the nine re- 
cipients. One experienced a recurrence 
of lymphoma, while the others have re- 
mained in remission for as long as ten 
months. Clearly, much longer follow- 
up periods are needed because lym- 
phomas can recur many years after go- 
ing into remission. 

Previous attempts to develop a can- 
cer vaccine have been limited because 
they have been based on tumor anti- 
gens that are not unique for the can- 
cerous ceils in each patient. 

The Stanford research team made an 
individual vaccine for each patient 
from the outer coating of the cancerous 
B cells— white blood cells called lym- 
phocytes that normally produce disease- 
fighting antibodies. To make the vac- 
cine, the researchers snipped a piece 
of the lymphoma, grew the cells in test 
tubes, and then separated part of the 
surface of the B cells from the other cel- 
lular components. 

Progress has also been made on a 
melanoma vaccine. At New York Uni- 
versity over the past eight years, Jean- 
Claude Bystryn has injected more than 
250 melanoma patients with a battery 
of proteins sloughed from the surface 
of malignant melanoma cells. Half of the 
first 94 patients treated responded, 29 
had a strong response. Although 
some have stayed in remission as long 
as six and seven years, others had dis- 
couraging recurrences within months. 
The average time from vaccination to 
recurrence has so far been 72 months — 
six years. 

Gene therapy has also taken a sud- 
den lurch forward. Last April, research- 
ers at the Howard Hughes Medical In- 
stitute at the University of Michigan an- 
nounced that they were ready to per- 
form the ultimate form of gene therapy — 
injecting DNA right into the patient's tu- 
mor. Gene therapy began in June. In 
the new method, researchers inject sev- 
eral trillion copies of a gene that pro- 
vides the instructions for making an an- 
tigen protein called HLA-B7, which galva- 
nizes the body's immune system, par- 
ticularly the polent destroyer T cells. 

This approach simplifies Rosen- 
berg's laborious routine of removing 
cells from the patient's body and .then 
altering them in -the lab and injecting 



them back into their owner. But it will be 
several years betore the effectiveness 
of the approach against melanoma or 
any other cancer is demonstrated. 

Although much more research is 
needed to decode and harness the full 
power of the immune system, the imper- 
ative to proceed at full speed is under- 
scored by the failure' of conventional 
treatment methods, particularly some 
frightening news about radiation and 
chemotherapy. These treatments actu- 
ally spur cancers on to grow more quick- 
ly over lbs course of treatment. Where- 
as tumors may require an average of 
two months to double in size before treat- 
ment, as the course of radiation or che- 
mo progresses, the surviving cells dou- 
ble in number every three or four days 
as a response to injury. The best ad- 
vice for people on these treatments: 
"Sessions should be scheduled as close- 
ly together as possible, and some side 
effects may have to be tolerated," 
saysH. Rodney Withers, professor of ra- 
diation oncology and head of the divi- 
sion of experimental radiation oncolo- 
gy at the UCLA Medical Center 

Many members of the medical com- 
munity view immunotherapy as the 
most promising means of controlling can- 
cer in the future. They look forward to 
the day when immunotherapy will be 
the standard means of diagnosing, treat- 
ing, and ultimately preventing cancer — 
a brave new world. 

Already, far more cancer patients are 
now surviving. The percentage of peo- 
ple alive five years after cancer diag- 
nosis is currently about 50 percent. Sig- 
nificant progress is being made. Mela- 
noma may become the first-cancer to 
be conquered by a vaccine, an ap- 
proach that has been repeatedly — and 
vainly — tried on many other kinds of can- 
cer over the past 30 years. Worldwide, 
there are about haif-a-dozen vaccines 
in some stages of trial. Melanoma's mo- 
lecular structure is particularly suited to 
the development of the vaccine, but 
more specifically, it will be the result of 
the pioneering work of Rosenberg, Par- 
doll, and Bystryn. The timetable may not 
be firm, but from all indications, it ap- 
pears that it will be in our lifetime. 
Since we are talking about a cancer- 
that has spread with bewildering 
speed — the incidence in the United 
States has soared more than 500 per- 
cent since the 1980s— this will be an ac- 
complishment of monumental propor- 
tions. The war on cancer will not only 
have won a major victory, but a success- 
ful melanoma vaccine is expected to be 
the first piece to go in the frustrating puz- 
zle. Unlocking this mystery will lead the 
way toward conquering all forms of the 
most deadly disease. DO 



DESIGN 



surfaces and dark colors. The Cardas- 
sians are also possessed of a kind of 
cuneiform hieroglyphic siyle of writing 
which to any but Cardassians is nearly 
indecipherable. Cardassians believe in 
honesty in design and want to see the 
columns and beams which make up a 
structure rather than disguise them 
with some cosmetic treatment, and 
they will always choose heavy, strong 
members over more delicate members. 
With these bits of admittedly made- 
up information as guidelines, the design 
team created in about four more 
weeks all the illustrations and working 
drawings for the station model and the 
full-sized interiors for Deep Space 
Nine. The project began to take on a 
life of its own. Following the agreed- 
upon Cardassian design criteria, a se- 
ries of molds were made of various ar- 
chitectural elements — windows, wall 
and column sections, door panels, ceil- 
ing beams, and so on — and the various 
basic sets were built from fiberglass cast- 
ings of these components. The settings 
took 1 2 weeks to construct and now oc- 
cupy three large sound stages on the 
Paramount lot in Hollywood. Principal 
photography began in August, and the 
first episode was to air in January. If his- 
tory is allowed' to repeat itself, and if, 
as Gene Roddenberry once said, you 
can come home again, then the world 
we have created for Deep Space Nine 
will please the public, ring true — and, 
I hope, live long and prosper. DO 

CREDITS 
Page 2, top: Peter Liepke; page 2, bot- 
tom led: Culver Piciures. Inc.; page 2, 
bottom right: Michael Zabe; page 4: Mi- 
chael Freeman; page 10, top; Michael 
Grecco/Sygma; page 10, middle: Syg- 
ma; page 16: Bill Longco re/Photo Re- 
searchers; page 17: Epix/Sygma; 
ige 20: Denver Museum of Natural His- 
■y; page 22: Steve Badanes; page 
i: Culver Pictures, Inc.; page 27, top: 
Harriet Gibson; page 27, bottom: Max 
Schneider/The Image Bank; page 28, 
top: Fernando Bueno/The Image 
Bank; page 28, bottom: Focus on 
Sports; page 31, top: Gary Lillien; 
page 31, bottom: The Image BanV 
page 36, top and middle: Kim Gottlieb- 
Walker; page 36, bottom: Julie Denis; 
page 36, top right S 1 ii 
Edgerly Agency/A8! Hollywood; pr~ 

page 42, 

set: Mashimo/St. John/The Edgerly 
Agency; pages 42-43: Rick Sternbach; 
page 44: Ricardo Delgado; page 59, 
middle and bottom left: Culver Pictures. 
Inc.; page 59, bottom right: Bettmann 
Arcnive; page 81: Ed Hallski/Gamma 



CONTINUED FROM P/ 



to pound against my temples. 

My mother told me, when I was 
eight, that my father had caused the 
war then raging in Vietnam. 

I say nothing. 

"Then," Healy continues in his beau- 
tiful, precise, foreign voice, "there 
must exist several versions of this pre- 
sent as well. Some of them must, by sim- 
ple deduction, be more appealing 
than this one." He glances around the 
drab bunker. Beyond the barred win- 
dow, an American flag flies over the pa- 
rade ground. Couldn't we have spared 
him the constant sight of his enemy's 
flag? 

Then I remember that he probably 
doesn't even recognize it. The stars-and- 
stripes wasn't adopted by the Continen- 
tal Congress until 1777. 

"This compound is not the whole of 
our present," Bechtel says, too gently. 
"The rest is much different." 

Healy waves a hand, smiling. "Oh, 
quite. I'm convinced you have marvels 
abounding, including your edition of Lon- 
don. Which, since I cannot return to my 
own, I hope to one day visit." The 
smile wavers slightly, but in a moment 



he has it back. "Of course, it will not be 
even the descendent of my own. I 
must be prepared for that. In this his- 
tory, you Colonials fought the Battle of 
Long Island in the summer." 

"Yes," Bechtel says. 
."My own history is apparently quite 
unrecoverable. Your historical tactician 
tells me that no connection appears to 
exist between this place and whichev- 
er of those histories is mine. And so I 
cannot, of course, know what might 
have happened in the course of my 
own war, any more than you can 
know." He watches Bechtel closely. All 
this is said in that same mocking, light- 
hearted voice. I can hear that voice in 
London drawing rooms, amid ladies in 
panniers and high-dressed curls, who 
know better than to believe a word 
such an amusing rake ever says. 

Bechtel lays down the printout and 
steps toward Healy's cot. Instinctively 
the Brit reaches for the coat of his uni- 
form and pulls it around his shoulders. 
Bechtel waits until Healy is draped in 
his remnants of the British Empire. 
Then Bechtel speaks in a voice both 
steady and offhand, as if it were calcu- 
lated to match the careless facade of 
Healy's own bravery. 

"You must choose the reality you pre- 
fer. Look at it this way, Captain, You 



don't know for sure who won the war in 
your time, or who survived it, or what 
England or the United States became 
after your November 16, 1776. Your 
past is closed to you. So you're free to 
choose whatever one you wish. You 
can live as if your choice <s your past. 
And in so doing, make it real," 

l move carefully at my station, feed- 
ing Healy's blood samples into the Hays- 
Mason analyzer. 

Healy says, with that same brittle gai- 
ety, "You are urging me to an act of 
faith, sir." 

"Yes, if you like," Bechtel says. He 
looks at me. "But I would call it an act 
of choice." 

"Choice that I am not a prisoner de 
guerre, from a losing army, of a war I 
may or may not have survived?" 

"Yes" 

"I will consider what you say, sir," Hea- 
ly says, and turns away. The epaulets 
on his shoulders tremble, but it may 
have been the light. From the parade 
ground beyond the window comes the 
sound of a jeep with a faulty muffler. 

"I've finished here," Bechtel tells the 
guard, who relays the information over 
his comlink. 

They remove Healy in a wheelchair, 
although it's obvious he doesn't like 
this. As he's wheeled pasl, he catches 





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at my arm. His blue eyes smile, but his 
fingers dig into my flesh. [ don't allow 
myself to wince. "Mistress Nurse— are 
there ladies where I'm going? Shall I 
have the society of your sex?" 

I look at him. Not even a hint of how 
Lieutenant Mary Inghram died has 
leaked to the outside press. Her parents 
were told she died in an explosives ac- 
cident; I signed the report myself. 
When the Pentagon takes the Arrivals 
from our compound, they vanish as com- 
pletely as if ihey'd never existed, and 
not'even an electronic- data trail, the hunt- 
ing spoor of the twenty-first century, re- 
mains. Ladies? The society of my sex? 
How would I know? 

"Yes," I say to Healy. "You will." 
The tent is empty except for Bechtel 
and me. I clean and stow the equip- 
ment; he scrubs at the sink. His back 
is to me. Very low, so that I barely hear 
him over the running water, he says, 
"Susan . . . ." 

"All right," I say. "I choose. You did it." 
I walk out of the bunker. Some sol- 
diers stand outside, at parade rest, 
listening to their sergeant read the 
orders for move-out. Guards still ring 
the place where the Hole used to be. 
In the sky, above the Low Radar Bar- 
rier, a seagull wheels and cries. The el- 
ephant is silent. I have never seen my 



father since. 

You might think I should" have chosen 
differently. You might think, given the ab- 
sence of proof, that like any jury empow- 
ered by the Constitution of the United 
States, I should choose the more inno- 
cent reality. Should believe that my fa- 
ther never molested me and that my 
mother, who is now beyond both proof 
and innocence, lied. The trial evidence 
is inconclusive, the character evidence 
cloudy. If I choose that reality, I gain not 
only a father, but peace of mind. I free 
myself from the torments of a past that 
might not even have happened. 

But I would-still be this Susan Peters. 
I would still watch my nurses tremble 
with love in the moonlight, and I would 
still see clearly the deceptions and 
hurt ahead, the almost inevitable anger. 
I would still recoil if a man brushes 
against me accidentally away from the 
hospital, and still pride myself on nev- 
er wincing at anything within a hospi- 
tal. I would still know that I chose Army 
nursing precisely because here danger- 
ous men are at their weakest, and 
most vulnerable, and in greatest need 
of what I can safely give them. 

I would still know what .Strickland 
learned: The Hole always closes. 

One version of the past has shaped 



all my of choices. II I decide it never hap- 
pened, what remains? Will I exist? I, 
Susan Peters, who runs the best com- 
bat nursing unit in the entire Army? I, 
Susan Peters, who have earned both 
the Commendation Medal and the Dis- 
tinguished Service Cross?" I, Susan Pe- 
ters, who can operate on a patient my- 
self if the doctors are occupied with oth- 
er screaming and suffering men? And 
have? 

I, Susan Peters. 

Who was sexually abused by her fa- 
ther, ran away from home, joined the Ar- 
my, became a nurse, served honorably 
in the Special Medical Unit assigned to 
the Battle of Long Island, and have nev- 
er lied to a patient except once. 

And maybe it wasn't a'lie. 

Maybe there will be ladies where 
they are taking Captain John Percy Hea- 
ly of His Majesty King George Ill's Twen- 
ty-Third Foot. Maybe Healy will stand 
with some young woman, somewhere, 
in the moonlight and touch her face 
with gentle fingers. It's possible. I cer- 
tainly don't know differently. And if 
there are, then it wasn't even a lie. DO 

Author Nancy Kress has won the Hugo 

and Nebula Awards for her work. Her 
next novel, Beggars in Spain, will be pub- 
lished by AvoNova in April 1993. 




iniTERVIEUU 



CONTINUED FROM W 



sin. If something should happen to 
him — and it's always possible; as we 
know, presidents get shot — then the 
question of who would take over and 
what would happen to current policies 
becomes very fuzzy. There's Rutskoi. 
Then some of the ex-coup plotters 
might come out of the woodwork. I 
think Gorbachev would make another 
stab for it, There'd certainly be a scram- 
ble for power, and you could get a fas- 
cist government. 

But it wouldn't be the same threat the 
Soviet Union was. It would take them 
five years to rebuild the force, and 
they'd face enormous resistance from 
the other republics, who would be fight- 
ing to maintain their independence. The 
Baltics, the central Asian republics, the 
Ukraine, maybe Belarus — they'd ail be 
much concerned about any such de- 
velopment and would cooperate with us 
and Western Europe. 
Omni: Russian defense minister Pavel 
Grachev made the alarming suggestion 
that the army should protect Russians 
living outside Russia. How probable is 
armed conflict between Russia and 
those of its neighbors where ethnic Rus- 
sians are a minority? 
Colby: You already have armed conflict 
in Moldava with the Trans-Dniestrian se- 
cessionists. Threat of it exists in the Bal- 
tics, where Baits consider as interlopers 
Russians who've been there for 40 or 
50 years. In Kazakhstan, you have a Rus- 
sian minority of some 30 to 40 percent. 
Russia and the Ukraine argue about the 
Black Sea Fleet and the Crimea. It will 
reguire considerable diplomacy to get 
through. The important point is that, 
like Sri Lanka or Northern Ireland or Hai- 
ti, these are local tragedies. A Sarajevo 
is not going to start World War III. 
Omni: Yeltsin's presence at the Munich 
summit a year ago underscored the 
fact that Russia's main foreign-policy ob- 
jective now is to join the West. Is that 
the place for a reborn Russia? 
Colby: They have to join the West. 
They need what the West has to offer 
in technical assistance and investment. 
They have a whole reeducation job to 
do. A friend told me that in conversa- 
tion with an Eastern European factory 
manager he mentioned the "cost of cap- 
ital," and the guy didn't understand 
what he was talking about. For him, cap- 
ital didn't have a cost; it was just there. 
I have a not entirely facetious model 
for the Soviet Union. It's called Italy. It- 
aly still has a huge state industrial sec- 
tor that is corrupt, inefficient, and a ter- 
rible burden on the economy„But un- 



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TREATMENT 



r-O'-l li. !■■ 



gun in 1971, advanced cancer patients 
who received vitamin C (usually ten 
grams, or 10,000 milligrams) had an av- 
erage survival time over four times that 
of the controls; some no longer 
showed any signs of malignant disease. 
The vitamin appears to boost various pro- 
tective mechanisms in the body and to 
prevent the formation of free radicals, 
the sinister chemical byproducts of ox- 
idation processes that have been 
linked to aging and cancer. 

The Pauling Institute advises those 
who take large doses of vitamin C 
(10,000 milligrams or more) to begin 
with one or two grams — 1 ,000 to 2,000 
milligrams — and increase the dosage 
gradually, by increments of one or two 
grams per day. 

-Access; For more information about 
research, contact the Linus Pauling In- 
stitute of Science and Medicine, 440 
Page Mill Road, Palo Alto, California 
94306; (415) 327-4064. 
MEDICINAL MUSHROOMS. Ganoder- 
ma (ling zhi in Chinese medicine; rei- 
shi in Japanese) or shiitake (Lentinus 
edodes) may be powerful weapons 
against cancer and AIDS. 

These fungi contain giant sugar mol- 
ecules called polysaccharides that 
play a key role in certain immune func- 
tions. Ganoderma, widely considered 
an anticancer and longevity tonic in the 
Orient, is often included in Chinese herb- 
al combinations along with other im- 
mune-enhancing herbs such as astrag- 
alus, lugustrum, condonopsis, and gin- 
seng. Shiitake is even more intriguing. 
One of its active ingredients, lentinan, 
has recently become the focus of a flur- 
ry of studies published in Japanese med- 
ical journals. Fed to mice with cancer, 
shiitake extracts reportedly shrank tu- 
mors by as much as 80 percent, appar- 
ently by modulating such immune-sys- 
tem components as macrophages, cy- 
totoxic T cells, and natural killer cells, 
In both animal and human studies, 
shiitake or its various components ex- 
hibited a strong antitumor effect against 
a wide variety of tumors. With its T- 
lymphocyte-enhancing abilities, shiitake/ 
lentinan is showing promise as an 
AIDS treatment as well. 

Access: Reishitaki capsules, contain- 
ing lentinan and other shiitake polysac- 
charides, are available from Metagen- 
ics, San Clemente, California 92672. 

For more information on nontoxic can- 
cer therapies, see Options: The Alter- 
native Cancer Therapy Book by Rich- 
ard Walters (Avery Publishing Group, 
1993). DO 




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derneaih it is this enormously vibrant 
free Italian economy that started after 
World War II when cigarettes were the 
medium of exchange. Then the retail- 
ers developed the wholesalers, the 
wholesalers developed the producers, 
and now you have the Flats and Oliv- 
ettis and an Italian GNP rivaling that of 
France and Britain. Now in Russia, 
you're seeing retailers all over the 
street, and they're developing new 
wholesalers and generating new pro- 
ducers. Agriculture is going fairly well. 
Products are getting to the streets. 
They cost too much, but they're there. 
The Soviets shouldn't worry about 
their great old industrial behemoths. 
There's not much you can do about 
them, and privatizing's difficult. The 
question is not whether, but how to let 
them collapse. That's a problem, be- 
cause Yeltsin's facing 10 to 20 million 
unemployed when they do. 
Omni: With the liberalization of Russia, 
one would have expected a diminution 
of covert Russian intelligence gathering 
in the United States. Yet last year, DCI 
Robert Gates indicated that such activ- 
ities continue nearly unabated. Is this 
merely a function of inertial momentum, 
or is this deliberate policy? 
Colby: There's some momentum, ob- 
viously, but I think it's the KGB's attempt 
to find a role for itself and to make a 
contribution through stealing some tech- 
nology. If your old role, that of control- 
ling society, isn't there anymore, well, 
then you have to find a new role. 
Omni: However transformed by technol- 
ogy, the gathering of intelligence will al- 
ways have a place for the human re- 
source, the agent with privileged ac- 
cess. If by waving a wand you could do 
so, in which single council or agency 
would you place such an agent today? 
Colby: Among the hard-line element in 
Russia, the ex-coup plotters, to keep us 
aware of what they're thinking and plan- 
ning. It might be to seize power from 
Mr. Yeltsin and to turn Russia in a 
more dangerous direction. There are oth- 
er candidates, of course, inside Sad- 
dam Hussein's entourage, or Kim II 
Sung's, or others of that nature. But 
most significant to us, worldwide, is the 
future of Russia. 

Omni: Your book, Lost Victory, states 
that it was obvious as early as 1962 
thai the Soviets had little influence over 
the Vietnamese. Was the Vietnam War, 
then, not a superpower conflict? 
Colby: No it wasn't. Moscow and Bei- 
jing were both being manipulated by 
the North Vietnamese. They'd go to Chi- 
na and say, "The Russians are helping 
us; you've, got to give us some help to 
match it." Then back to the Russians: 
"The Chinese are helping us; give us 



some help to match it," and so on. 
They played them like a violin. 

The Vietnam War was a people's 
war. The question was whether the 
South Vietnamese people could be 
brought into it to help protect them- 
selves against North Vietnamese at- 
tempts to subordinate them. There 
were two programs that essentially did 
try to arm the people. One was the Stra- 
tegic Hamlets program under President 
Diem. That program disappeared with 
Diem's overthrow, which was, in my 
opinion, the single greatest mistake we 
made the whole war. The other was a 
somewhat similar program toward the 
end of the Sixties that did clean up the 
countryside. I know, because I could 
drive about the country. 
Omni: Are you referring to the Phoenix 
Program? 

Colby: Not the Phoenix. I'm referring to 
the CORDS pacification and develop- 
ment program that included election of 
village leaders, the improvement of life- 
style, if you will, the spreading of 
schools, building of irrigation ditches, 
and handing out of weapons for the peo- 
ple for self-defense. This turned out to 
be quite successful. We didn't shoot the 
enemy; we recruited them. Phoenix was 
just a small subset of this. It was just 
the intelligence effort to identify who the 
enemy was. 

Omni: Although you served in many ca- 
pacities in Vietnam, it is the Phoenix Pro- 
gram with which your name is most read- 
ily identified, which in your own words, 
"became a synonym for brutality in Vi- 
etnam by the Vietnamese government 
and by the United States." Phoenix is 
popularly thought to have involved tor- 
ture and assassination on the part of the 
United States and its allies. Did it? 
Colby: No. I won't say that no torture 
went on in Vietnam, that no assassina- 
tions took place. I do say that the pur- 
pose and effect of Phoenix was to min- 
imize these misdeeds, and such mis- 
deeds were in direct contrast to the 
specific orders I wrote, that the program 
not be a program of assassination — as 
I emphasized all the way through. 
Omni: Okay, to what were you referring 
in your Command Directive in 1969 
that said, "If individuals find the activi- 
ties of the Phoenix Program repugnant, 
they can, on their application, be reas- 
signed from the program"? 
Colby: Police work. Some people, sol- 
diers particularly, don't like police 
work. Soldiering and policing are two 
different subjects. To identify secret 
threats had a high quantity of policing. 
If you don't like it, fine; go out and be 
a soldier. Soldiering is the application 
of deliberate force to crush an enemy. 
In police work, we must get inside and 



get control and not use force except as- 
a last resort. Police work is more sub- 
tle than soldiering. 

Omni: According to Orrin DeForest, 
CIA chief interrogation officer in Military 
Region III from 1968 until the fall of Sai- 
gon in 1975, the CIA financed opera- 
tions in Vietnam by buying heavily 
discounted black-market piasters in 
Hong Kong from South Vietnamese 
government officials involved in the opi- 
um trade. Is this true? 
Colby: Certainly not opium money! We 
did buy all sorts of local monies in the 
international centers where you buy 
money. Obviously, if you have an agent 
in Poland, you're not going to pay him 
in dollar bills, or bright, new, fresh zloty 
either. You're going to get some dirty 
old zloty that has been kicked about for 
a long time so that the numbers are no 
longer identifiable. Then you transport 
that to Poland to pay him. Similarly, 
when we needed local currency in Vi- 
etnam, we didn't go down to the bank 
and get a bundle of it. I can't answer 
the question of where exactly that mon- 
ey came from. 

This opium thing is always talked 
about, but even in the high hills of La- 
os where we were heavily engaged, we 
made a particular point of discourag- 
ing growth of opium and tried to get farm- 
ers into new crops. We prohibited the 
transport of opium or heroin on Air Amer- 
ica planes. I'm not saying some old la- 
dy didn't get on with a little cigarette or 
something, but there was certainly no 
transport of anything that could be 
called opium. We were certainly very vig- 
orous in our dispute against that. 

The officers and tribal leaders we 
worked with were reasonably clean. The 
ones in the opium trade in Laos were 
the Vientiane generals of the Royal Lao 
■ Army, all of whom were down in the val- 
ley and didn't take much part in the war, 
of which the tribal people carried the bur- 
den. They were in the opium trade. 
Omni; I noticed on your bookshelf 
David Wise's book, Molehunt. Much has 
been written about your relations with 
James Jesus Angleton, the longtime 
head of Counterintelligence. It was his 
enduring conviction that the CIA har- 
bored a long-term Soviet penetration 
agent at the highest levels. Can we be 
sure Angleton was wrong? 
Colby: No. I never said we couldn't 
have a penetration. The way you run an 
intelligence agency is to assume either 
that you have a current penetration, or 
somebody can defect, or somebody 
can just go out and blab too much. You 
compartmentalize your different opera- 
tions so nobody learns all of it. As di- 
rector, I made a particular point of not 
learning the names of the foreign 



agents that worked for us abroad. I 
didn't want that knowledge to be in my 
head for the rest of my life. Frankly, I 
doubt there was a high-level penetra- 
tion. I looked carefully at several cases 
where there were particular suspicions, 
and as a lawyer, I was outraged. I 
looked for evidence, and there wasn't 
any evidence. 

Omni: The 1980 Intelligence Authoriza- 
tion Act contained a clause that came 
to be known within the Agency as the 
"Mole Relief Act," designed to compen- 
sate ollicers whose careers had been 
damaged by false accusations of dis- 
loyalty. One gets the impression that 
Counterintelligence under Angleton 
was, in its obsessive search for Golyt- 
sin's mole and its involvement in MHCha- 
os, essentially out of control. 
Colby: Well, I don't know that it was "out 
of control." Jim was allowed to run eve- 
rything. Various directors felt it was an 
essential part of their total program 
that he be there and be suspicious of 
certain things. Jim stayed in office too 
long. I have great respect for things he 
did in earlier years, but at the end, he 
got off on a wrong twist. That's why I 
began to take Ihi-igs away from him, hop- 
ing he'd take the 1 hint and leave. He 
didn't take the hint and fought hard to 
remain, and I finally had to face up to 
him and remove him. Obviously, there 
were injustices done. That's what the 
bill was there for. Some officers re- 
ceived compensation. 
Omni: The only successful long-term 
penetration of the Agency widely 
known to the public is, in fact, the 
case of Larry Wu-Tai Chin, who served 
the Chinese. How do you view China? 
What can we expect from them in the 
coming years? 

Colby: We needn't fear an awful lot, Chi- 
na isn't going to be a threatening coun- 
try to its neighbors. In fact, it's reverting, 
in a funny way, to an ancient system of 
administration that I call the Mandarin 
system. Nobody believes in Commu- 
nism anymore. But the Communist ap- 
paratus is still going to insist on politi- 
cal control while they allow the econ- 
omy to run free, as it's doing, and which 
will be quite successful. But the Man- 
darins'-will be able to retain power. 
They look at what happened in 
Moscow with undisguised horror— the 
self-destruction of an empire— and 
they're just not interested in seeing 
that happen in China, They've been 
through periods of warring states in pre- 
vious dynasty changes, and they don't 
want to see it happen again. 
Omni: It you were the head of a foreign 
intelligence service today, how would 
your world have changed with Bill Clin- 
ton s election? 



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Colby: Noi a great deal. There is, after 
all, a greal continuity in American poli- 
cy, and I'd see no major swerves com- 
ing. Governor Clinton's first priorities 
will be internal and economic, a devel- 
opment that will be greeted with delight 
abroad, even though it will mean an in- 
crease in- American competitiveness 
over time. 

I'd expect the new administration to 
take a slightly harder line on intellectu- 
al property (patent and copyright) is- 
sues and on human rights. I'd foresee 
a drop in security-related assistance 
and a decline in American military pres- 
ence abroad. I'd expect the new admin- 
istration to stand up in any trade dis- 
putes with the European Economic Com- 
munity and the development of open 
markets with Latin America. It's possible 
we might see some minor trade prob- 
lems with East Asia. 

In foreign affairs, I'd expect a Clin- 
ton Administration in conjunction with 
our allies, to develop a program of ec- 
onomic assistance to Russia. I'd also an- 
ticipate a greater turn to the United Na- 
tions and an increased U.S. participa- 
tion in international bodies. I believe we 
may see U.S. support for a greater role 
for the Secretary General and an in- 
creased use of U.N. forces. (It's worth 
noting that when, after 40 years, Rus- 
sian troops at last made it to Yugosla- 
via, they did so under a U.N. flag.) 
Omni: In parting, may I ask a mischie- 
vous last question? 
Colby: Sure. 

Omni: In 1980, five years after your re- 
turn to private life, Nugan Hand Ltd., an 
investment bank in Sydney, Australia, 
failed after its Australian founder, 
Francis J. Nugan, was found shot to 
death, -and his American partner, Mi- 
chael J. Hand, disappeared. As de- 
scribed - in Australian court documents, 
Nugan Hand was deeply implicated in 
money laundering and other dubious ac- 
tivities, and held CIA accounts. Your 
business card was found on Francis Nu- 
gan's body. Is retirement as tranquil as 
you'd hoped? 

Colby: That situation came to me via a 
mutual friend who had been in touch 
with Hand. He was looking for legal ad- 
vice on buying property here — tax im- 
plications and so forth. I did a few 
chores for him. Then I said I was going 
to be out in Singapore to see somebody 
on certain dates and gave him a card. 
He marked the dates on the card. I 
didn't know anything about the sub- 
stance of what he was doing at the 
bank. I had no responsibility to the 
bank itself. I met Hand once, I think, 
and Nugan three or four times. 
Omni: So retirement is tranquil? 
Colby: I keep a very busy schedule. DO 



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DIVERSE DIVERSIONS: 

Some puzzles about stars, knights, and squares 

By Scot Morris 



This issue, we present a 
potpourri of puzzle 
quickies. The answers follow 
the puzzles. 

1. Take out four pennies 
to play Star. Solitaire. Put the 
first on any point of the star 
(below), and then slide it 
along a line- to another point 
and leave it there. Put a 
second penny on any vacant 
point, and slide it along a 
line to another empty point. 
Do the same with the third 
and fourth pennies — if you 
can. What simple strategy 
always lets you find a place 
for all the pennies? 

AT 



2. The sum of the irnemsi 
angles of a triangle is 180 
degrees. What is the sum of 
theinternal angles of a 
five-pointed star? If you 
place a match at the 
position shown, how could 
you use it to make the 
answer intuitively obvious? 

3. Zbr the knight is alone- 
in the Great Hall, where two 
golden cords hang from 
rings one foot apart on the 
100-foot ceiling. He wants to 
take as much cord as 
possible by climbing up it 
and cutting it with his 
dagger, but a fall from 
anywhere above 30 feet 
would be fatal. How much 
cord can he take? 



4. How many rectangles 
or squares can be formed 
that have their corners on 4 
of these 12 dots? Some 
examples are. shown. 

o p— o— o 

q— -0--9 6 
i i 

O— jr>.-.-.o— -6 

5. Move one line to make 
the equation correct. 



X- 



6. Move three lines 
make three squares. 



7. Without rearranging 

letters, find ten words in the 
word THEREIN. 

8. COLD/FROG, JOLLY/ 

CHEER, ADDER/BEEFS, 

FREUD/. . What's the 

logic governing these word 
pairs, and what word goes 
in the blank? 

9. There are four common 
English words that end in 
DOUS. What are they? 

10. Find three numbers; 
that give the same result 
whether added together or 
multiplied together. 



11. How many 9s are 
there in the numbers from 1 
to 100? 

12. FRAME, MOVIE, 
CLAMP, DAY, MAIL, STOP, 
SPOT, BOMB, BEAM, 
WALK, RATIOM, ?, BUTTER- 
FLY, ?, RING, ?, TIP, ?, 
CURVE. SQUARE, TURN, 
FORMATION, PLEASURE, 
RAY, CHROMOSOME, ?. 
What's the logic of this word 
sequence? Which word is 

a pun on a famous jingle, 
and what's' the product? 
Can you supply words for 
the question marks'? 

ANSWERS: 
1. Place each penny so that 
it slides to the point where 
the previous penny started. 

2. 180. Slide the match 
along one arm until its head 
reaches point B. Pivot the 
match up, and slide it 
bottom-first to point E. Pivot 
it again and slide it hc-ad s i-st 
to C. Keep going in a similar 
fashion until the match has 
returned to point D. When it 
gets there, it is head-down, 
a 180-degree turn. 

3. All of it. First Zor ties the 
bottoms together, Then he 
climbs to the top of one 
rope. He wraps his legs 
around both ropes and cuts 
the other at the top. Hanging 
from the first- rope, he pokes 
the cut end of the other rope 
through the ring that held it 
and pulls it through until the 
knotted ends reach the ring. 
He holds the double rope 
and cuts the first rope at the 
ring. He slides down the 
double cord to the floor 
and pulls the cords free of 
the ring. 

4. There are 20 rectan- 
gles. When several hundred 
people actually took this 
test, only 3 percent 



answered this question 
correctly. Most overlooked 
the two diagonal squares. 

5. Move the minus sign to 
the left of the X and make it 
vertical. 

6. You have to destroy the 
first square to make three: 



7. The, herein, here, her, 
he, rein, re, in, there, I. (Also, 
the archaic ere.) 

8. COBRA is the missing 
word. Shift each of the 
letters in COLD three 
positions forward in the 
alphabet, and you get 
FROG. Similarly, JOLLY 
becomes CHEER if each 
letter is shifted seven places- 
back, and ADDER becomes 
BEEFS if each letter is 
shifted one place forward. 
FREUD turns to COBRA if 
each letter shifts three back. 

9. Horrendous, 
tremendous, stupendous, 
hazardous. 

10. 1, 2, and 3. 

11. 20. (Did you count the 
two in 99?) 

12. Each word forms a 
familiar pair with a letter of 
the alphabet: A-frame, 
B-movie, C-clamp, D-day, 
E-mail, and so on. The 
slogan pun is "W-pleasure," 
from the jingle for Double- 
mint gum. I can't think of any 
good "general knowledge" 
examples for L, N, P, R. and 
Z. Can you? DO